A county board of education may establish and maintain one or more community schools.
California School Discipline Laws & Regulations: Alternative placements
California School Discipline Laws & Regulations: Alternative placements
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The county board of education may enroll pupils in a county community school who are any of the following:
(a) Expelled from a school district for any reason other than those specified in subdivision (a) or (c) of Section 48915.
(3) If the parent, guardian, or responsible adult of the pupil objects for any of the reasons described in subclauses (I) to (IV), inclusive, of clause (i) of subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1), the school district may either address the express objection or find an alternative placement in another comprehensive or continuation school within the school district. If the school district has offered the pupil all other options, the school district may refer the pupil to the county community school.
(a) A pupil who is involuntarily enrolled in a county community school pursuant to subdivision (a) of, or subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) or paragraph (3) of subdivision (c) of, Section 1981 shall have the right to reenroll in his or her former school or another comprehensive school immediately after being readmitted from the expulsion order pursuant to Section 48916 or court-ordered placement. Nothing in this section is intended to limit the school placement options that a school district may recommend for a pupil being readmitted.
(b) Consistent with the process and procedures set forth in Section 48916, only the governing board of the school district that issued the initial order or subsequent order to expel may extend the duration of an expelled pupil's placement in a county community school.
(a) Pupils enrolled in county community schools shall be assigned to classes or programs deemed most appropriate for reinforcing or reestablishing educational development.
(b) These classes or programs may include, but need not be limited to, basic educational skill development, on-the-job training, school credit recovery assistance, tutorial assistance, and individual guidance activities.
(c) To the extent that independent study is determined to satisfy the individually planned educational program described in subdivision (d) for a pupil attending a county community school, it shall meet all the requirements of Article 5.5 (commencing with Section 51745) of Chapter 5 of Part 28 of Division 4 of Title 2, including the requirement that entry into that program is voluntary.
(d) An individually planned educational program based upon an educational assessment shall be prescribed for each pupil.
(e) The course of study of a county community school shall be adopted by the county board of education and shall enable each pupil to continue academic work leading to the completion of a regular high school program.
(f) Pursuant to Part 30 (commencing with Section 56000) of Division 4 of Title 2, Chapter 33 (commencing with Section 1400) of Title 20 of the United States Code, and accompanying state and federal regulatory provisions, county boards of education operating county community schools shall ensure that assessments are administered in all areas of suspected disability and appropriate services and programs, as specified in a pupil's individualized education program, are provided.
(g) County boards of education operating county community schools shall ensure that appropriate services and programs designed to address the language needs of pupils identified as English learners are provided in compliance with all applicable state and federal laws and regulatory provisions.
(h) For purposes of this section, "school credit recovery assistance" refers to a pupil passing, and receiving credit for, a course that the pupil previously attempted, but for which the pupil was unsuccessful in earning academic credit towards graduation. The pupil can recover the credit by satisfying requirements for the course in which they were unsuccessful and can focus on earning credit based on competency in the content standards for that particular course. Credit recovery programs aim to help schools graduate more pupils by giving pupils who have fallen behind the chance to recover credits through a multitude of different strategies. Different programs allow pupils to work on their credit recovery classes over the summer, on school breaks, after school, on weekends, at home on their own, at night in school computer labs, online, or even during the schoolday.
For the purposes of establishing and maintaining a county community school, a county board of education shall be deemed to be a school district.
(a) The Legislature hereby recognizes that community schools are a permissive educational program.
(b) If a county superintendent of schools elects to operate a community school pursuant to this chapter, he or she shall do one or more of the following:
(1) Utilize available school facilities that conform to the requirements of Part 2 (commencing with Section 2-101), Part 3 (commencing with Section 3-089-1), Part 4 (commencing with Section 4-403), and Part 5 (commencing with Section 5-102), of Title 24 of the California Code of Regulations.
(2) Apply for emergency portable classrooms pursuant to Section 17717.2 or Chapter 25 (commencing with Section 17785) of Part 10.
(3) Enter into lease agreements provided that the facilities are limited to one of the following:
(A) Single story, wood-framed structure.
(B) Single story, light steel frame structure.
(C) A structure where a structural engineer has submitted a report that determines substantial structural hazards do not exist. The county board of education shall review the report prior to approval of the lease and may reject the report if there is any evidence of fraud regarding the facts in the report.
(c) Before entering into any lease pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (b), the county superintendent of schools shall certify that all reasonable efforts have been made to locate community schools in facilities that conform to the structural safety standards listed in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b).
(d) This section shall become operative on July 1, 1990.
The county school attendance review board may encourage local school attendance review boards to maintain a continuing inventory of community resources, including alternative educational programs, and to make recommendations for the improvement of such resources and programs or for the creation of new resources and programs where none exist.
The governing board of each high school district and each unified school district shall establish and maintain within its boundaries special continuation education classes and may establish and maintain regional occupational centers or programs, in accordance with the provisions of Section 52301, whenever there are any minors residing within the district who are subject to compulsory continuation education; provided, that if there are fewer than 100 students enrolled in grade 12 in any school of the district maintaining that grade, the governing board of the district may apply to the State Department of Education for exemption of that school from the requirements of this section and such exemption may be granted in accordance with rules and regulations that shall be adopted by the State Board of Education to govern the granting of the exemptions. An exemption may also be granted to schools having an enrollment of more than 100 pupils in grade 12 if the district seeking the exemption has entered into an agreement with another high school district or unified school district to maintain special continuation education classes for minors residing in either of the districts, but shall not be granted if the agreement would make it necessary for such minors to travel an excessive distance from their homes to the continuation education classes.
If there is a regional occupational center or program as provided in Article 1 (commencing with Section 52300) of Chapter 9 of Part 28, of this division within a county, the governing board of any school district within that county may enroll minors, otherwise subject to, and in lieu of, continuation education, in the center or program in accordance with the provisions of Section 52314.
Any minor admitted to a regional occupational center or program under the provisions of Section 52314.5 shall be considered to have enrolled in the regional occupational center or program in lieu of continuation education classes. Nothing in this section shall prohibit a minor from enrolling in a program of continuation education or a regular high school program if the minor voluntarily chooses to enroll in the program.
(a) The governing board of a school district may establish one or more community day schools for pupils who meet one or more of the conditions described in subdivision (b) of Section 48662. A community day school may serve pupils in any of kindergarten and grades 1 to 6, inclusive, or any of grades 7 to 12, inclusive, or the same or lesser included range of grades as may be found in an individual middle or junior high school operated by the school district. If a school district is organized as a school district that serves kindergarten and grades 1 to 8, inclusive, but no higher grades, the governing board of the school district may establish a community day school for any kindergarten and grades 1 to 8, inclusive, upon a two-thirds vote of the governing board of the school district. It is the intent of the Legislature, that to the extent possible, the governing board of a school district operating a community day school for any of kindergarten and grades 1 to 8, inclusive, separate younger pupils from older pupils within that community day school.
(b) The average daily attendance of a community day school shall be determined by dividing the total number of days of attendance in all full school months, by a divisor of 70 in the first period of each fiscal year, by a divisor of 135 in the second period of each fiscal year, and by a divisor of 180 at the annual time of each fiscal year.
It is the intent of the Legislature that school districts operating community day schools to the extent possible include the following program components:
(a) School district cooperation with the county office of education, law enforcement, probation, and human services agencies personnel who work with at-promise youth.
(b) Low pupil-teacher ratio.
(c) Individualized instruction and assessment.
(d) Maximum collaboration with school district support service resources, including, but not limited to, school counselors and psychologists, academic counselors, and pupil discipline personnel.
(a) A community day school shall not be situated on the same site as an elementary, middle, junior high, comprehensive senior high, opportunity, or continuation school, except as follows:
(1) When the governing board of a school district with 2,500 or fewer units of average daily attendance reported for the most recent second principal apportionment certifies by a two-thirds vote of its membership that satisfactory alternative facilities are not available for a community day school.
(2) When the governing board of a school district that is organized as a district to serve kindergarten and grades 1 to 8, inclusive, but no higher grades, certifies by a two-thirds vote of its membership that satisfactory alternative facilities are not available for a community day school.
(3) When the governing board of a school district that desires to operate a community day school to serve any of kindergarten and grades 1 to 6, inclusive, but no higher grades, certifies by a two-thirds vote of its membership that satisfactory alternative facilities are not available for a community day school.
(b) A certification made pursuant to this section is valid for not more than one school year and may be renewed by a subsequent two-thirds vote of the governing board.
(a) The governing board of a school district that establishes a community day school shall adopt policies that provide procedures for the involuntary transfer of pupils to a community day school.
(b) A pupil may be assigned to a community day school only if he or she meets one or more of the following conditions:
(1) The pupil is expelled for any reason.
(2) The pupil is probation referred pursuant to Sections 300 and 602 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.
(3) The pupil is referred to a community day school by a school attendance review board or other district level referral process.
(4) First priority for assignment to a community day school shall be given to a pupil expelled pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 48915, second priority shall be given to pupils expelled for any other reasons, and third priority shall be given for placement to all other pupils pursuant to this section, unless there is an agreement that the county superintendent of schools shall serve any of these pupils.
(a) The minimum schoolday in a community day school is 360 minutes of classroom instruction provided by a certificated employee of the district reporting the attendance of the pupils for apportionment funding.
(b) A pupil enrolled in a community day school may not generate more than one day of community day school attendance credit in a schoolday for any purpose.
(c) For the purposes of calculating the additional funding provided to a school district pursuant to Section 48664, only community day school attendance shall be reported in clock hours. Attendance of less than five clock hours in a schoolday shall be disregarded for purposes of Section 48664. Five clock hours of attendance in one schoolday shall be deemed to be one-half day of attendance, for purposes of additional funding pursuant to Section 48664. Six clock hours or more of attendance in one schoolday shall be deemed to be one day of attendance, for purposes of additional funding pursuant to Section 48664.
(d) Independent study may not be utilized as a means of providing any part of the minimum instructional day provided pursuant to subdivision (a).
(e) A community day school's academic programs shall be comparable to those available to pupils of a similar age in the school district.
(a) Except as provided in subdivision (g) of Section 48911 and in Section 48912, the total number of days for which a pupil may be suspended from school shall not exceed 20 schooldays in any school year, unless for purposes of adjustment, a pupil enrolls in or is transferred to another regular school, an opportunity school or class, or a continuation education school or class, in which case the total number of schooldays for which the pupil may be suspended shall not exceed 30 days in any school year.
(b) For the purposes of this section, a school district may count suspensions that occur while a pupil is enrolled in another school district toward the maximum number of days for which a pupil may be suspended in any school year.
(a) A teacher may suspend any pupil from class, for any of the acts enumerated in Section 48900, for the day of the suspension and the day following. The teacher shall immediately report the suspension to the principal of the school and send the pupil to the principal or the designee of the principal for appropriate action. If that action requires the continued presence of the pupil at the schoolsite, the pupil shall be under appropriate supervision, as defined in policies and related regulations adopted by the governing board of the school district. As soon as possible, the teacher shall ask the parent or guardian of the pupil to attend a parent-teacher conference regarding the suspension. If practicable, a school counselor or a school psychologist may attend the conference. A school administrator shall attend the conference if the teacher or the parent or guardian so requests. The pupil shall not be returned to the class from which he or she was suspended, during the period of the suspension, without the concurrence of the teacher of the class and the principal.
(b) A pupil suspended from a class shall not be placed in another regular class during the period of suspension. However, if the pupil is assigned to more than one class per day this subdivision shall apply only to other regular classes scheduled at the same time as the class from which the pupil was suspended.
(c) A teacher may also refer a pupil, for any of the acts enumerated in Section 48900, to the principal or the designee of the principal for consideration of a suspension from the school.
(a) A pupil suspended from a school for any of the reasons enumerated in Sections 48900 and 48900.2 may be assigned, by the principal or the principal's designee, to a supervised suspension classroom for the entire period of suspension if the pupil poses no imminent danger or threat to the campus, pupils, or staff, or if an action to expel the pupil has not been initiated.
(b) Pupils assigned to a supervised suspension classroom shall be separated from other pupils at the schoolsite for the period of suspension in a separate classroom, building, or site for pupils under suspension.
(c) School districts may continue to claim apportionments for each pupil assigned to and attending a supervised suspension classroom provided as follows:
(1) The supervised suspension classroom is staffed as otherwise provided by law.
(2) Each pupil has access to appropriate counseling services.
(3) The supervised suspension classroom promotes completion of schoolwork and tests missed by the pupil during the suspension.
(4) Each pupil is responsible for contacting his or her teacher or teachers to receive assignments to be completed while the pupil is assigned to the supervised suspension classroom. The teacher shall provide all assignments and tests that the pupil will miss while suspended. If no classroom work is assigned, the person supervising the suspension classroom shall assign schoolwork.
(d) At the time a pupil is assigned to a supervised suspension classroom, a school employee shall notify, in person or by telephone, the pupil's parent or guardian. Whenever a pupil is assigned to a supervised suspension classroom for longer than one class period, a school employee shall notify, in writing, the pupil's parent or guardian.
(e) This section does not place any limitation on a school district's ability to transfer a pupil to an opportunity school or class or a continuation education school or class.
(f) Apportionments claimed by a school district for pupils assigned to supervised suspension shall be used specifically to mitigate the cost of implementing this section.
(a)(1) Except as provided in subdivisions (c) and (e), the principal or the superintendent of schools shall recommend the expulsion of a pupil for any of the following acts committed at school or at a school activity off school grounds, unless the principal or superintendent determines that expulsion should not be recommended under the circumstances or that an alternative means of correction would address the conduct:
(A) Causing serious physical injury to another person, except in self-defense.
(B) Possession of any knife or other dangerous object of no reasonable use to the pupil.
(C) Unlawful possession of any controlled substance listed in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 11053) of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code, except for either of the following:
(i) The first offense for the possession of not more than one avoirdupois ounce of marijuana, other than concentrated cannabis.
(ii) The possession of over-the-counter medication for use by the pupil for medical purposes or medication prescribed for the pupil by a physician.
(D) Robbery or extortion.
(E) Assault or battery, as defined in Sections 240 and 242 of the Penal Code, upon any school employee.
(2) If the principal or the superintendent of schools makes a determination as described in paragraph (1), he or she is encouraged to do so as quickly as possible to ensure that the pupil does not lose instructional time.
(b) Upon recommendation by the principal or the superintendent of schools, or by a hearing officer or administrative panel appointed pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 48918, the governing board of a school district may order a pupil expelled upon finding that the pupil committed an act listed in paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) or in subdivision (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e) of Section 48900. A decision to expel a pupil for any of those acts shall be based on a finding of one or both of the following:
(1) Other means of correction are not feasible or have repeatedly failed to bring about proper conduct.
(2) Due to the nature of the act, the presence of the pupil causes a continuing danger to the physical safety of the pupil or others.
(c) The principal or superintendent of schools shall immediately suspend, pursuant to Section 48911, and shall recommend expulsion of a pupil that he or she determines has committed any of the following acts at school or at a school activity off school grounds:
(1) Possessing, selling, or otherwise furnishing a firearm. This subdivision does not apply to an act of possessing a firearm if the pupil had obtained prior written permission to possess the firearm from a certificated school employee, which is concurred in by the principal or the designee of the principal. This subdivision applies to an act of possessing a firearm only if the possession is verified by an employee of a school district. The act of possessing an imitation firearm, as defined in subdivision (m) of Section 48900, is not an offense for which suspension or expulsion is mandatory pursuant to this subdivision and subdivision (d), but it is an offense for which suspension, or expulsion pursuant to subdivision (e), may be imposed.
(2) Brandishing a knife at another person.
(3) Unlawfully selling a controlled substance listed in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 11053) of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code.
(4) Committing or attempting to commit a sexual assault as defined in subdivision (n) of Section 48900 or committing a sexual battery as defined in subdivision (n) of Section 48900.
(5) Possession of an explosive.
(d) The governing board of a school district shall order a pupil expelled upon finding that the pupil committed an act listed in subdivision (c), and shall refer that pupil to a program of study that meets all of the following conditions:
(1) Is appropriately prepared to accommodate pupils who exhibit discipline problems.
(2) Is not provided at a comprehensive middle, junior, or senior high school, or at any elementary school.
(3) Is not housed at the schoolsite attended by the pupil at the time of suspension.
(e) Upon recommendation by the principalor the superintendent of schools, or by a hearing officer or administrative panel appointed pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 48918, the governing board of a school district may order a pupil expelled upon finding that the pupil, at school or at a school activity off of school grounds violated subdivision (f), (g), (h), (i), (j), (k), (l), or (m) of Section 48900, or Section 48900.2, 48900.3, or 48900.4, and either of the following:
(1) That other means of correction are not feasible or have repeatedly failed to bring about proper conduct.
(2) That due to the nature of the violation, the presence of the pupil causes a continuing danger to the physical safety of the pupil or others.
(f) The governing board of a school district shall refer a pupil who has been expelled pursuant to subdivision (b) or (e) to a program of study that meets all of the conditions specified in subdivision (d). Notwithstanding this subdivision, with respect to a pupil expelled pursuant to subdivision (e), if the county superintendent of schools certifies that an alternative program of study is not available at a site away from a comprehensive middle, junior, or senior high school, or an elementary school, and that the only option for placement is at another comprehensive middle, junior, or senior high school, or another elementary school, the pupil may be referred to a program of study that is provided at a comprehensive middle, junior, or senior high school, or at an elementary school.
(g) As used in this section, "knife" means any dirk, dagger, or other weapon with a fixed, sharpened blade fitted primarily for stabbing, a weapon with a blade fitted primarily for stabbing, a weapon with a blade longer than 3_ inches, a folding knife with a blade that locks into place, or a razor with an unguarded blade.
If the governing board of a school district has established a community day school pursuant to Section 48661 on the same site as a comprehensive middle, junior, or senior high school, or at any elementary school, the governing board does not have to meet the condition in paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 48915 when the board, pursuant to subdivision (f) of Section 48915, refers a pupil to a program of study and that program of study is at the community day school. All the other conditions of subdivision (d) of Section 48915 are applicable to the referral as required by subdivision (f) of Section 48915.
(a) A pupil expelled from school for any of the offenses listed in subdivision (a) or (c) of Section 48915, shall not be permitted to enroll in any other school or school district during the period of expulsion unless it is a county community school pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 1981, or a juvenile court school, as described in Section 48645.1, or a community day school pursuant to Article 3 (commencing with Section 48660) of Chapter 4 of Part 27.
(b) After a determination has been made, pursuant to a hearing under Section 48918, that an individual expelled from another school district for any act described in subdivision (a) or (c) of Section 48915 does not pose a danger to either the pupils or employees of the school district, the governing board of a school district may permit the individual to enroll in the school district after the term of expulsion, subject to one of the following conditions:
(1) He or she has established legal residence in the school district, pursuant to Section 48200.
(2) He or she is enrolled in the school pursuant to an interdistrict agreement executed between the affected school districts pursuant to Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 46600) of Part 26.