New York School Discipline Laws & Regulations: Due Process

Discipline Compendium

New York School Discipline Laws & Regulations: Due Process

Category: Exclusionary Discipline: Suspension, Expulsion, and Alternative Placement
Subcategory: Due Process
State: New York

The state or jurisdiction(s) you selected for this subcategory are shown below, followed by the laws and regulations. To add or change states, use the Back button and resubmit your search request.

To view a state profile showing school discipline laws and regulations in all subcategories for a given state, click on the state name.

New in 2023

LAWS

201.2. Definitions

As used in this Part, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

(a) Behavioral intervention plan means a plan that is based on the results of the functional behavioral assessment and, at a minimum, includes a description of the problem behavior, global and specific hypotheses as to why the problem behavior occurs and intervention strategies that include positive behavioral supports and services to address the behavior.

(c) Controlled substance means a drug or other substance identified under schedule I, II, III, IV, or V in section 202(c) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. section 812[c]) (United States Code, 2006 edition, volume 13; Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9328; 2008 - available at the Office of Counsel, New York State Education Department, State Education Building, Room 148, 89 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12234).

(d) Day shall mean a calendar day, except where a school day or business day is specified.

(1) School day means any day, including a partial day, that students are in attendance at school for instructional purposes. The term school day has the same meaning for all students in school, including students with and without disabilities.

(e) Disciplinary change in placement means suspension or removal from a student's current educational placement that is either:

(1) for more than 10 consecutive school days; or

(2) for a period of 10 consecutive days or less if the student is subjected to a series of suspensions or removals that constitute a pattern because they cumulate to more than 10 school days in a school year; because the student's behavior is substantially similar to the student's behavior in previous incidents that resulted in the series of removals; and because of such additional factors as the length of each suspension or removal, the total amount of time the student has been removed and the proximity of the suspensions or removals to one another. The school district determines on a case-by-case basis whether a pattern of removals constitutes a change of placement. This determination is subject to review through due process and judicial proceedings.

(f) Expedited due process hearing means an impartial hearing conducted in an expedited manner under the circumstances and in accordance with the procedures specified in section 201.11 of this Part.

(g) Expedited evaluation means an individual evaluation conducted in an expedited manner under the circumstances and in accordance with the procedures specified in section 201.6 of this Part.

(h) Functional behavioral assessment means a functional behavioral assessment as defined in section 200.1(r) of this Title.

(i) Illegal drug means a controlled substance, but does not include a controlled substance legally possessed or used under the supervision of a licensed health-care professional or a substance that is otherwise legally possessed or used under the authority of the Controlled Substances Act or under any other provision of Federal law.

(j) Impartial hearing officer means an impartial hearing officer as defined in section 200.l(x) of this Title who is appointed to conduct an impartial hearing or expedited due process hearing pursuant to Education Law, section 4404(1). Such term shall not include a hearing officer designated by a superintendent of schools to conduct a superintendent' s hearing pursuant to Education Law, section 3214(3)(c).

(k) Interim alternative educational setting or IAES means a temporary educational placement, other than the student's current placement at the time the behavior precipitating the IAES placement occurred. A student who is placed in an IAES shall:

(1) continue to receive educational services so as to enable the student to continue to participate in the general education curriculum, although in another setting and to progress toward meeting the goals set out in the student's IEP; and

(2) receive, as appropriate, a functional behavioral assessment and behavioral intervention services and modifications that are designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur.

(l) Removal means:

(1) a removal of a student with a disability for disciplinary reasons from that student's current educational placement, other than a suspension as defined in subdivision (r) of this section; and

(2) the change in placement of a student with a disability to an IAES by an impartial hearing officer pursuant to section 201.8 of this Part. Such term shall also include the change of placement of a student with a disability to an IAES pursuant to section 201.7(e) of this Part made in conjunction with a suspension.

(m) Serious bodily injury means bodily injury which involves a substantial risk of death, extreme physical pain, protracted and obvious disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ or mental faculty.

(n) Student presumed to have a disability for discipline purposes means a student who the school district is deemed to have knowledge was a student with a disability before the behavior that precipitated disciplinary action under the criteria in section 201.5(b) of this Part.

(o) Student with a disability means a student with a disability as defined in section 200.1(zz) of this Part or a preschool student with a disability as defined in section 200.1(mm) of this Title.

(p) Superintendent or superintendent of schools means a superintendent of schools of a school district, including a community superintendent, or the chief school officer of an approved private school. Such term does not include a district superintendent of schools.

(q) Superintendent's hearing means a disciplinary hearing conducted pursuant to Education Law, section 3214(3)(c) and (g) by a superintendent of schools, or a hearing officer designated by a superintendent of schools, to determine whether a student should be suspended from instruction for more than five consecutive school days.

(r) Suspension means suspension pursuant to Education Law, section 3214(3)(a) through (d).

(s) Weapon means a weapon, device, instrument, material or substance, animate or inanimate, that is used for, or is readily capable of, causing death or serious bodily injury, except that such term does not include a pocket.
201.9 Coordination with superintendent's hearing and other due process procedures applicable to all students.

(a) Procedures for suspensions of five school days or less.

In the case of a suspension for five consecutive school days or less pursuant to paragraph b of subdivision 3 of section 3214 of the Education Law and section 201.7(b) of this Part, the parents or persons in parental relation to the student shall be provided an opportunity for an informal conference in accordance with paragraph d of subdivision 3 of section 3214 of the Education Law.


(b) Procedures for removals other than suspensions.

A removal of a student with a disability, as defined in section 201.2(l) of this Part, to which the provisions of paragraphs (a) through (d) of subdivision 3 of section 3214 of the Education Law do not apply, other than a change in placement to an IAES, shall be conducted in accordance with the due process procedures applicable to such removals of nondisabled students, except that school personnel may not impose such removal for more than 10 consecutive days or for a period that would result in a disciplinary change in placement, unless there has been a determination that the behavior is not a manifestation of the student's disability. The removal of a student with a disability to an IAES shall be conducted in accordance with the applicable provisions of section 201.7(e) of this Part and paragraph (c)(3) of this section, or of section 201.8 of this Part.


(c) Procedures for suspensions of more than five school days (superintendent's hearings).

Superintendent's hearings on disciplinary charges against students with disabilities and students presumed to have a disability for discipline purposes shall be bifurcated into a guilt phase and a penalty phase and conducted in accordance with the following procedures:

(1) The superintendent of schools or hearing officer in the superintendent's hearing shall proceed with the guilt phase and determine whether the student is guilty of the alleged misconduct. If it is determined that the student is guilty of the alleged misconduct, the superintendent of schools or hearing officer in the superintendent's hearing shall make a threshold determination of whether a suspension or removal in excess of 10 consecutive school days or that would otherwise constitute a disciplinary change in placement should be considered. If the threshold determination is that such a suspension or removal should be considered, before the superintendent of schools orders or the hearing officer in the superintendent's hearing recommends any such removal, the superintendent's hearing shall be adjourned until a manifestation determination is made by the manifestation team, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (3) of this subdivision. If the superintendent of schools or hearing officer in the superintendent's hearing determines that a suspension or removal that would constitute a disciplinary change in placement should not be considered, the hearing shall proceed to the penalty phase.

(2) Upon a determination by the manifestation team that the behavior of a student with a disability was not a manifestation of the student's disability, such student may be disciplined in the same manner as a nondisabled student, except that such student shall continue to receive services in accordance with section 201.10 of this Part. Upon receipt of notice of such determination, the superintendent or hearing officer in the superintendent' s hearing shall proceed with the penalty phase of the hearing. If the manifestation team determines that the behavior was a manifestation of the student's disability, the superintendent or hearing officer in the superintendent's hearing shall dismiss the superintendent's hearing, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (3) of this subdivision.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subdivision, if the superintendent or hearing officer in the superintendent's hearing is considering the change in placement of a student with a disability to an IAES pursuant to section 201.7(e) of this Part, upon a determination that the student is guilty of the alleged misconduct relating to serious bodily injury, weapons, illegal drugs or controlled substances, the superintendent of schools may order, or the hearing officer in the superintendent's hearing may recommend, such change in placement to an IAES, to be determined by the CSE, for up to 45 school days, but not to exceed the length of time that a nondisabled student would be suspended for the same misconduct under the school district's student discipline policy. The superintendent of schools may order such change in placement of a student with a disability to an IAES, directly or upon recommendation of a hearing officer in the superintendent's hearing, even where the manifestation team determines that the student's behavior is a manifestation of the student's disability.

(4) The penalty phase of a superintendent's hearing for a student with a disability or a student presumed to have a disability for discipline purposes shall be conducted in the same manner as the penalty phase of a hearing involving a nondisabled student, including the admission of anecdotal evidence of past instances of misconduct. The school district shall assure that copies of the special education and disciplinary records of the student are transmitted to the superintendent of schools or hearing officer in the superintendent's hearing for consideration. Such records shall be transmitted whether or not the manifestation team has determined that the student's behavior is a manifestation of the student's disability.

(5) Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the suspension or removal of a student with a disability from his or her current educational placement for violation of school rules following a determination by the manifestation team that the behavior is a manifestation of the student's disability, except where the student is placed in an IAES for behavior involving serious bodily injury, weapons, illegal drugs or controlled substances pursuant to section 201.7(e) of this Part or the student is placed in an IAES by an impartial hearing officer pursuant to section 201.8 of this Part.

201.11 Expedited due process hearings.

(a) An expedited due process hearing shall be conducted pursuant to this Part under the following circumstances:

(1) the school district requests an expedited due process hearing to obtain an order of an impartial hearing officer placing a student with a disability in an IAES pursuant to section 201.8 of this Part where school personnel maintain that it is dangerous for the student to be in his or her current educational placement;

(2) the school district requests an expedited due process hearing to obtain an order of an impartial hearing officer placing a student with a disability in an IAES during the pendency of due process hearings where school personnel maintain that it is dangerous for the student to be in his or her current educational placement during such proceedings;

(3) the parent requests a hearing from a determination that the student's behavior was not a manifestation of the student's disability; or

(4) the parent requests a hearing relating to any decision regarding placement under section 201.7 of this Part, including but not limited to any decision to place the student in an IAES.


(b) An expedited due process hearing shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures specified in section 200.5(j) of this Title, except as follows:

(1) Upon receipt of or filing of a due process complaint notice for an expedited hearing, the board of education shall arrange for an impartial hearing and the appointment of an impartial hearing officer using the list in accordance with the rotational selection process established in section 200.2(e)(1) of this Title and the administrative procedures established by the board of education pursuant to section 200.2(b)(8) of this Title.

(2) The impartial officer may not accept appointment unless available to hold the hearing and render the decision within the time period for expedited hearings pursuant to paragraph (3) of this subdivision.

(3) The school district shall arrange the expedited due process hearing according to the following time period, unless the parent and school district agree in writing to waive the resolution meeting or agree to use mediation:

(i) a resolution meeting shall occur within seven days receiving notice of the due process complaint;

(ii) the expedited due process hearing may proceed unless the matter has been resolved to the satisfaction of both parties within 15 days of receipt of the due process complaint;

(iii) the expedited due process hearing shall occur within 20 school days of the date the complaint requesting the hearing is filed; and

(iv) the impartial hearing officer shall make a determination within 10 school days after the hearing.

(4) No extension to an expedited impartial hearing timeline may be granted.

(5) The impartial hearing officer shall mail a copy of the written, or at the option of the parents, electronic findings of fact and the decision to the parents, to the board of education and the Office of Special Education of the New York State Education Department within 10 school days after the hearing.


(c) If a parent requests a hearing or an appeal regarding the change in placement of a student to an IAES by a superintendent of schools, or regarding a change in placement by an impartial hearing officer pursuant to section 201.8 of this Part where the school district maintains that it is dangerous for the student to remain in his or her current educational placement, or regarding a determination that the behavior is not a manifestation of the student's disability for a student who has been placed in an IAES, the student shall remain in the IAES pending the decision of the impartial hearing officer or until expiration of the time period determined in accordance with section 201.7 or 201.8 of this Part, as applicable, whichever occurs first, unless the parents and the school district otherwise agree.


(d) When an expedited due process hearing has been requested because of a disciplinary change in placement, the manifestation determination or because the school district believes that maintaining the student in the current placement is likely to result in injury to the student or others, the student shall remain in the IAES pending the decision of the impartial hearing officer or until the expiration of the period of removal, whichever occurs first, unless the parent and the school district agree otherwise.

3214. Student placement, suspensions and transfers.

3. Suspension of a pupil.

b. (1) The board of education, board of trustees, or sole trustee, superintendent of schools, district superintendent of schools and the principal of the school where the pupil attends shall have the power to suspend a pupil for a period not to exceed five school days. In the case of such a suspension, the suspending authority shall provide the pupil with notice of the charged misconduct. If the pupil denies the misconduct, the suspending authority shall provide an explanation of the basis for the suspension. The pupil and the person in parental relation to the pupil shall, on request, be given an opportunity for an informal conference with the principal at which the pupil and/or person in parental relation shall be authorized to present the pupil's version of the event and to ask questions of the complaining witnesses. The aforesaid notice and opportunity for an informal conference shall take place prior to suspension of the pupil unless the pupil's presence in the school poses a continuing danger to persons or property or an ongoing threat of disruption to the academic process, in which case the pupil's notice and opportunity for an informal conference shall take place as soon after the suspension as is reasonably practicable.

c. (1) No pupil may be suspended for a period in excess of five school days unless such pupil and the person in parental relation to such pupil shall have had an opportunity for a fair hearing, upon reasonable notice, at which such pupil shall have the right of representation by counsel, with the right to question witnesses against such pupil and to present witnesses and other evidence on his behalf. Where a pupil has been suspended in accordance with this subdivision by a superintendent of schools, district superintendent of schools, or community superintendent, the superintendent shall personally hear and determine the proceeding or may, in his discretion, designate a hearing officer to conduct the hearing. The hearing officer shall be authorized to administer oaths and to issue subpoenas in conjunction with the proceeding before him. A record of the hearing shall be maintained, but no stenographic transcript shall be required and a tape recording shall be deemed a satisfactory record. The hearing officer shall make findings of fact and recommendations as to the appropriate measure of discipline to the superintendent. The report of the hearing officer shall be advisory only, and the superintendent may accept all or any part thereof. An appeal will lie from the decision of the superintendent to the board of education who shall make its decision solely upon the record before it. The board may adopt in whole or in part the decision of the superintendent of schools. Where the basis for the suspension is, in whole or in part, the possession on school grounds or school property by the student of any firearm, rifle, shotgun, dagger, dangerous knife, dirk, razor, stiletto or any of the weapons, instruments or appliances specified in subdivision one of section 265.01 of the penal law, the hearing officer or superintendent shall not be barred from considering the admissibility of such weapon, instrument or appliance as evidence, notwithstanding a determination by a court in a criminal or juvenile delinquency proceeding that the recovery of such weapon, instrument or appliance was the result of an unlawful search or seizure.

(2) Where a pupil has been suspended in accordance with this section by a board of education, the board may in its discretion hear and determine the proceeding or appoint a hearing officer who shall have the same powers and duties with respect to the board that a hearing officer has with respect to a superintendent where the suspension was ordered by him. The findings and recommendations of the hearing officer conducting the proceeding shall be advisory and subject to final action by the board of education, each member of which shall before voting review the testimony and acquaint himself with the evidence in the case. The board may reject, confirm or modify the conclusions of the hearing officer. [...]

3-a.b. The principal shall inform the person in parental relation to such pupil of the removal and the reasons therefor within twenty-four hours of the pupil's removal, provided that if such twenty-four hour period does not end on a school day, it shall be extended to the corresponding time on the next school day. The pupil and the person in parental relation shall, upon request, be given an opportunity for an informal conference with the principal to discuss the reasons for the removal. If the pupil denies the charges, the principal shall provide an explanation of the basis for the removal and allow the pupil and/or person in parental relation to the pupil an opportunity to present the pupil's version of relevant events. Such informal hearing shall be held within forty-eight hours of the pupil's removal, provided that if such forty-eight hour period does not end on a school day, it shall be extended to the corresponding time on the second school day next following the pupil's removal. For purposes of this subdivision, "school day" shall mean a school day as defined pursuant to clause (v) of subparagraph three of paragraph g of subdivision three of this section.

REGULATIONS

100.2 (l)(2). Code of conduct.

(iii) Additional responsibilities.

(a) Each board of education and, in the case of the City School District of the City of New York, the chancellor of such city school district, and each board of cooperative educational services shall annually review and update as necessary its code of conduct, taking into consideration the effectiveness of code provisions and the fairness and consistency of its administration. A school district may establish a committee pursuant to Education Law section 2801(5)(a) to facilitate the review of its code of conduct and the district's response to code of conduct violations. A board of education or board of cooperative educational services may adopt any revision to the code of conduct only after at least one public hearing that provides for the participation of school personnel, parents, students, and any other interested party. Each district shall file a copy of its code of conduct and any amendments with the commissioner, in a manner prescribed by the commissioner, no later than thirty days after their respective adoptions.

American Institutes for Research

U.S. Department of Education

The contents of the National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments Web site were assembled under contracts from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Supportive Schools to the American Institutes for Research (AIR), Contract Number  91990021A0020.

This Web site is operated and maintained by AIR. The contents of this Web site do not necessarily represent the policy or views of the U.S. Department of Education nor do they imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education.

©2024 American Institutes for Research — Disclaimer   |   Privacy Policy   |   Accessibility Statement