Response and Resiliency

Response and Resiliency

Over the years, our nation's schools have experienced unspeakable tragedies, including the heartbreaking and savage attacks on December 14, 2012 at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut; on February 14, 2018 at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, FL; and on May 24, 2022 at Robb Elementary School in Uvalde, TX. To successfully address such tragedies, it is critical that schools build a safe and supportive learning environment that develops students' protective factors before a crisis occurs and maintain and build the learning environment after a crisis has occurred.

This webpage includes a combination of seminal resources released after previous disasters, including mass shootings in Columbine and Newtown, that are still useful, as well as newer ones too. The resources are sorted into three categories: prevention; recovery – both for those who experienced a traumatic event and those who have heard about a traumatic event; and resilience.


For information and resources on developing emergency management plans and for supporting efforts of local education agencies and institutions of higher education, go to the REMS TA Center.

For information on coping with violence and traumatic events, visit SAMHSA's Trauma and Violence webpage.

For information on building trauma-sensitive schools, visit NCSSLE's Supporting Trauma Recovery webpage.

American Institutes for Research

U.S. Department of Education

The contents of the National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments Web site were assembled under contracts from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Supportive Schools to the American Institutes for Research (AIR), Contract Number  91990021A0020.

This Web site is operated and maintained by AIR. The contents of this Web site do not necessarily represent the policy or views of the U.S. Department of Education nor do they imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education.

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