Notes

  1. Polaris Project. (2020). 2019 data report: The US National Human Trafficking Hotline. Polaris Project. https://polarisproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Polaris-2019-US-National-Human-Trafficking-Hotline-Data-Report.pdf
  2. Fedina, L., Williamson, C., & Perdue, T. (2019). Risk factors for domestic child sex trafficking in the United States. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 34(13), 2653–2673. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260516662306
  3. Polaris Project. (2011). Educators and human trafficking: In-depth review. Polaris Project. https://humantraffickinghotline.org/sites/default/files/In%20Depth%20Review%20for%20Educators.pdf
  4. National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE. (2014). Sex trafficking of minors: What schools need to know to recognize and respond to the trafficking of students. National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE. https://nche.ed.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/trafficking.pdf
  5. For additional information on trauma-sensitive/trauma-informed schools, see the Trauma-Sensitive Schools Training Package developed under contract to the U.S. Department of Education by the National Center of Safe Supportive Learning Environments. https://safesupportivelearning.ed.gov/trauma-sensitive-schools-training-package
  6. Development Services Group, Inc. (2016). Child labor trafficking. Literature review. U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. https://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/child-labor-trafficking.pdf
  7. Development Services Group, Inc. (2016). Child labor trafficking. Literature review. U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. https://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/child-labor-trafficking.pdf
  8. Polaris Project. (2017). The typology of modern slavery: Defining sex and labor trafficking in the United States. Polaris Project. https://polarisproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Polaris-Typology-of-Modern-Slavery-1.pdf
  9. Murphy, L. (2016). Labor and sex trafficking among homeless youth: A ten-city study. Loyola University. https://www.covenanthouse.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/Loyola%20Multi-City%20Executive%20Summary%20FINAL.pdf
  10. Development Services Group, Inc. (2016). Child labor trafficking: Literature review. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. https://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/child-labor-trafficking.pdf
  11. National Council of State Legislatures. (2017). Safe harbor: State efforts to combat child trafficking. National Council of State Legislatures. https://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/safe-harbor-state-efforts-to-combat-child-trafficking.aspx
  12. Rights4Girls. (2019). Domestic child sex trafficking and black girls. Rights4Girls. https://rights4girls.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/r4g/2019/05/Black-Girls-DCST-May-2019-1.pdf
  13. Pierce, A. (2012). American Indian adolescent girls: Vulnerability to sex trafficking, intervention strategies. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: The Journal of the National Center, 19(1), 37–56. https://doi.org/10.5820/aian.1901.2012.37; Roe-Sepowtiz, D., & Jabola-Carolus, K. (2019). Sex trafficking in Hawai’i: The stories of survivors. Arizona State University and Hawai’i State Commission on the Status of Women. https://ncjtc-static.fvtc.edu/resources/RS00009136.pdf
  14. NCAI Policy Research Center. (2016). Human & sex trafficking: Trends and responses across Indian country. Tribal Insights Brief, Spring 2016. http://www.ncai.org/policy-research-center/research-data/prc-publications/TraffickingBrief.pdf
  15. Polaris Project. (2020, July 29). Racial disparities, Covid-19, and human trafficking. Polaris Project. https://polarisproject.org/blog/2020/07/racial-disparities-covid-19-and-human-trafficking/
  16. Fedina, L., Perdue, T., Bright, C. L., & Williamson, C. (2019). An ecological analysis of risk factors for runaway behavior among individuals exposed to commercial sexual exploitation. Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma, 12, 221–231. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7163838/
  17. Walts, K. (2017). Child labor trafficking in the United States: A hidden crime. Social Inclusion, 5(2), 59–68. https://doi.org/10.17645/si.v5i2.914
  18. National Network for Youth. (2018). Responding to youth homelessness: A key strategy for preventing human trafficking. National Network for Youth. https://nn4youth.org/wp-content/uploads/NN4Y-2018-white-paper-human-trafficking-WEB-1.pdf
  19. Murphy, L. (2016). Labor and sex trafficking among homeless youth: A ten-city study. Loyola University. https://oag.ca.gov/sites/all/files/agweb/pdfs/ht/murphy-labor-sex-trafficking-homeless-youth.pdf
  20. Freeman, P. (2014). Prevalence and relationship between adverse childhood experiences and child behavior among young children. Infant Mental Health Journal, 35(6), 527–656. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21460
  21. Gibbs, D. A., Feinberg, R. K., Dolan, M., Latzman, N. E., Misra, S., & Domanico, R. (2018). Report to Congress: The child welfare system response to sex trafficking of children. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/report/report-congress-child-welfare-system-response-sex-trafficking-children
  22. Pullmann, D., Roberts, N., Parker, E., Mangiaracina, K., Briner, L., Silverman, M., & Becker, J. (2020). Residential instability, running away, and juvenile detention characterizes commercially exploited youth involved in Washington State’s child welfare system. Child Abuse & Neglect, 102, 104423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104423
  23. Pfenning, E., Bardine, D., & Smoot, N. (n.d.). Child trafficking and juvenile justice. Webinar slides. https://juvjustice.org/sites/default/files/ckfinder/files/Human%20Trafficking%20Webinar.pdf
  24. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. (2013). Confronting commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States. The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/18358
  25. Wolfe, D., Greeson, J., Wasch, S., & Treglia, D. (2018). Human trafficking prevalence and child welfare risk factors among homeless youth: A multi-city study. The Field Center for Children’s Policy, Practice & Research, University of Pennsylvania. https://fieldcenteratpenn.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/6230-R10-Field-Center-Full-Report-Web.pdf
  26. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Human Trafficking Training and Technical Assistance Center. (2018). Human trafficking and individuals with disabilities. Webinar. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/otip/training-technical-assistance/resource/nhttacwebinarindiv
  27. International Organization for Youth and Courtney’s House. (2018). LGBTQ youth and sex trafficking. http://iofa.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/IOFA-LGBTQ-Youth-Final-.pdf
  28. International Organization for Youth and Courtney’s House. (2018). LGBTQ youth and sex trafficking. http://iofa.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/IOFA-LGBTQ-Youth-Final-.pdf
  29. Cardoso, J., Brabeck, K., Stinchcomb, D., Heidbrink, L., Price, O. A., Gil-Carcia, O., … Zayas, L. (2019). Integration of unaccompanied migrant youth in the United States: A call for research. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 45(2), 273–292. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2017.1404261
  30. Walts, K. (2017). Child labor trafficking in the United States: A hidden crime. Social Inclusion, 5(2), 59–68. https://www.cogitatiopress.com/socialinclusion/article/view/914/914
  31. National Human Trafficking Hotline. (n.d.). Agriculture. https://humantraffickinghotline.org/labor-trafficking-venuesindustries/agriculture
  32. Polaris Project. (2019). Child trafficking and the child welfare system. Polaris Project. https://polarisproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Child-Welfare-Fact-Sheet.pdf; Sprang, G., & Cole, J. (2018). Familial sex trafficking of minors: Trafficking conditions, clinical presentation, and system involvement. Journal of Family Violence, 33, 185–195. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10896-018-9950-y; NCAI Policy Research Center. (2016). Human & sex trafficking: Trends and responses across Indian country. Tribal Insights Brief. NCAI Policy Research Center. https://www.ncai.org/policy-research-center/research-data/prc-publications/TraffickingBrief.pdf; Franchino-Olsen, H. (2019). Vulnerabilities relevant for commercial sexual exploitation of children/ domestic minor sex trafficking: A systematic review of risk factors. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838018821956; National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. (2020). Child sex trafficking identification resource. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. https://www.missingkids.org/content/dam/missingkids/pdfs/CST%20Identification%20Resource.pdf; Roe-Sepowitz, D., Bracy, K., & Hogan, K. (2020). Youth experiences survey: Exploring the human trafficking of homeless young adults in Arizona, year 6. Trust. https://trustaz.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/rr-youth-experiences-survey-stir-2019-yes-report.pdf; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Family and Youth Services Bureau. (2019). Human trafficking for runaway and homeless youth serving programs: A resource guide. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.rhyttac.net/assets/docs/Resources/HumanTraffickingResourceGuide-508.pdf; Gibbs, D. A., Feinberg, R. K., Dolan, M., Latzman, N. E., Misra, S., & Domanico, R. (2018). Report to Congress: The child welfare system response to sex trafficking of children. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/cb/report_congress_child_trafficking.pdf
  33. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Resources: Common health issues seen in victims of Human trafficking. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/orr/health_problems_seen_in_traffick_victims.pdf; Polaris Project. (2011). Educators and human trafficking: In-depth review. Polaris Project. https://humantraffickinghotline.org/sites/default/files/In%20Depth%20Review%20for%20Educators.pdf; Polaris Project. (2011). Tools for educators. Polaris Project. https://humantraffickinghotline.org/sites/default/files/Educator%20Assessment%20Tool.pdf; Polaris Project. (2017). The typology of modern slavery: Defining sex and labor trafficking in the United States. Polaris Project. https://polarisproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Polaris-Typology-of-Modern-Slavery-1.pdf; American Counseling Association. (n.d.). Human trafficking awareness for school counselors. Counseling Connection. https://www.counseling.org/docs/default-source/school-counseling/ht-awareness-schoolcounselorconnection.pdf?sfvrsn=ba7b562c_2; National Human Trafficking Hotline. (n.d.). Recognizing the signs. https://humantraffickinghotline.org/human-trafficking/recognizing-signs; de Vries, I., Kafafian, M., Goggin, K., Bouchard, E., Goldfarb, S., & Farrell, A. (2020). Enhancing the identification of commercial sexual exploitation among a population of high-risk youths using predictive regularization models. Child Maltreatment, 25(3), 318–327. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559519889178
  34. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. (2020). Child sex trafficking. https://www.missingkids.org/theissues/trafficking#riskfactors
  35. Cole, J., & Sprang, G. (2015). Sex trafficking of minors in metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural communities. Child Abuse & Neglect, 40, 113–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.07.015
  36. Occhiboi, A. (2015, July 9). Trafficking in rural America. Love 146. https://love146.org/trafficking-in-rural-america/
  37. Palines, P., Rabbitt, A., Pan, A., Nugent, M., & Ehrman, W. (2020). Comparing mental health disorders among sex trafficked children and three groups of youth at high-risk for trafficking: A dual retrospective cohort and scoping review. Child Abuse & Neglect, 100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.104196
  38. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. (2018). A public health approach to human trafficking. Webinar. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/otip/resource/nhttacphwebinar-0
  39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.(2019). Preventing adverse childhood experiences: Leveraging the best available evidence. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/preventingACES.pdf; ISafe Ventures, U.S. Department of Education. (2017). Use case–human trafficking framework for instructional programming in schools. ISafe Ventures. https://safesupportivelearning.ed.gov/sites/default/files/USDOE_UseCase_HT_2017.pdf; U.S. Department of Education. (2020, January 30). The identification and support of students affected by human trafficking. Webinar. https://vimeo.com/388383293/e1ef82f39a; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Family & Youth Services Bureau, and Centers for Disease Control. (2020, January 30). Connecting the dots: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the intersection with human trafficking. Webinar. https://vawnet.org/events/connecting-dots-adverse-childhood-experiences-aces-and-intersection-human-trafficking; The National Network for Youth. (2018). Responding to youth homelessness: A key strategy for preventing human trafficking. The National Network for Youth. https://nn4youth.org/wp-content/uploads/NN4Y-2018-white-paper-human-trafficking-FINAL-0918.pdf; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families, Office on Trafficking in Persons. (2019, April 24). Definitions and principles to inform human trafficking prevention. Doc No: OTIP-IM-19-01.01. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/otip/im_definitions_and_principles_of_human_trafficking_prevention.pdf
  40. San Diego County Office of Education. (2019, February 4). SDCOE partners on new human trafficking prevention programs. https://www.sdcoe.net/news/Pages/SDCOE-partners-on-New-Human-Trafficking-Prevention-Programs.aspx