North Carolina

To view this state’s school discipline laws and regulations, scroll to a subcategory of interest and select “Laws and Regulations.”

Regulation Set
Major Category
General Provisions
Sub Category
Authority to develop and establish rules of conduct
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-12. Powers and duties of the Board generally.

The general supervision and administration of the free public school system shall be vested in the State Board of Education. The State Board of Education shall establish policy for the system of free public schools, subject to laws enacted by the General Assembly. The powers and duties of the State Board of Education are defined as follows:

(9) Miscellaneous Powers and Duties. All the powers and duties exercised by the State Board of Education shall be in conformity with the Constitution and subject to such laws as may be enacted from time to time by the General Assembly. Among such duties are:

d. To formulate rules and regulations for the enforcement of the compulsory attendance law.

§ 115C-238.66. Board of directors; powers and duties.

The board of directors shall have the following powers and duties:

(2) Standards of performance and conduct. The board of directors shall establish policies and standards for academic performance, attendance, and conduct for students of the regional school. The policies of the board of directors shall comply with Article 27 of this Chapter.

(3) School attendance. Every parent, guardian, or other person in this State having charge or control of a child who is enrolled in the regional school and who is less than 16 years of age shall cause such child to attend school continuously for a period equal to the time that the regional school shall be in session. No person shall encourage, entice, or counsel any child to be unlawfully absent from the regional school. Any person who aids or abets a student's unlawful absence from the regional school shall, upon conviction, be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. The principal shall be responsible for implementing such additional policies concerning compulsory attendance as shall be adopted by the board of directors, including regulations concerning lawful and unlawful absences, permissible excuses for temporary absences, maintenance of attendance records, and attendance counseling.

(12) Policy against bullying. A regional school is encouraged to adopt a policy against bullying or harassing behavior, including cyber-bullying, that is consistent with the provisions of Article 29C of this Chapter. If a regional school adopts a policy to prohibit bullying and harassing behavior, the regional school shall, at the beginning of each school year, provide the policy to staff, students, and parents as defined in G.S. 115C-390.1(b)(8).

§ 115C-288. Powers and duties of principal.

(e) To Discipline Students and to Assign Duties to Teachers with Regard to the Discipline, General Well-being, and Medical Care of Students. -

The principal shall have authority to exercise discipline over the pupils of the school under policies adopted by the local board of education in accordance with G.S. 115C-390.1 through G.S. 115C-390.12. The principal may use reasonable force pursuant to G.S. 115C-390.3 and may suspend students pursuant to G.S. 115C-390.5. The principal shall assign duties to teachers with regard to the general well-being and the medical care of students under G.S. 115C-307 and Article 26A of this Chapter.

§ 115C-390.2. Discipline policies.

(a) Local boards of education shall adopt policies to govern the conduct of students and establish procedures to be followed by school officials in disciplining students. These policies must be consistent with the provisions of this Article and the constitutions, statutes, and regulations of the United States and the State of North Carolina.

(b) Board policies shall include or provide for the development of a Code of Student Conduct that notifies students of the standards of behavior expected of them, conduct that may subject them to discipline, and the range of disciplinary measures that may be used by school officials.

(c) Board policies may authorize suspension for conduct not occurring on educational property, but only if the student's conduct otherwise violates the Code of Student Conduct and the conduct has or is reasonably expected to have a direct and immediate impact on the orderly and efficient operation of the schools or the safety of individuals in the school environment.

(d) Board policies shall not allow students to be long-term suspended or expelled from school solely for truancy or tardiness offenses and shall not allow short-term suspension of more than two days for such offenses.

(e) Board policies shall not impose mandatory long-term suspensions or expulsions for specific violations unless otherwise provided in State or federal law.

(f) Board policies shall minimize the use of long-term suspension and expulsion by restricting the availability of long-term suspension or expulsion to those violations deemed to be serious violations of the board's Code of Student Conduct that either threaten the safety of students, staff, or school visitors or threaten to substantially disrupt the educational environment. Examples of conduct that would not be deemed to be a serious violation include the use of inappropriate or disrespectful language, noncompliance with a staff directive, dress code violations, and minor physical altercations that do not involve weapons or injury. The principal may, however, in his or her discretion, determine that aggravating circumstances justify treating a minor violation as a serious violation.

(g) Board policies shall not prohibit the superintendent and principals from considering the student's intent, disciplinary and academic history, the potential benefits to the student of alternatives to suspension, and other mitigating or aggravating factors when deciding whether to recommend or impose long-term suspension.

(h) Board policies shall include the procedures to be followed by school officials in suspending, expelling, or administering corporal punishment to any student, which shall be consistent with this Article.

(i) Each local board shall publish all policies, administrative procedures, or school rules mandated by this section and make them available to each student and his or her parent at the beginning of each school year and upon request.

(j) Local boards of education are encouraged to include in their safe schools plans, adopted pursuant to G.S. 115C-105.47, research-based behavior management programs that take positive approaches to improving student behaviors.

(k) School officials are encouraged to use a full range of responses to violations of disciplinary rules, such as conferences, counseling, peer mediation, behavior contracts, instruction in conflict resolution and anger management, detention, academic interventions, community service, and other similar tools that do not remove a student from the classroom or school building.

(l) (Applicable to children enrolling in the public schools for the first time beginning with the 2016-2017 school year) Board policies shall state that absences under G.S. 130A-440 shall not be suspensions. A student subject to an absence under G.S. 130A-440 shall be provided the following:

(1) The opportunity to take textbooks and school-furnished digital devices home for the duration of the absence.

(2) Upon request, the right to receive all missed assignments and, to the extent practicable, the materials distributed to students in connection with the assignment.

(3) The opportunity to take any quarterly, semester, or grading period examinations missed during the absence period.

§ 115C-407. Policy prohibiting tobacco use in school buildings, grounds, and at school_sponsored events.

(a) Not later than August 1, 2008, local boards of education shall adopt, implement, and enforce a written policy prohibiting at all times the use of any tobacco product by any person in school buildings, in school facilities, on school campuses, and in or on any other school property owned or operated by the local school administrative unit. The policy shall further prohibit the use of all tobacco products by persons attending a school_sponsored event at a location not listed in this subsection when in the presence of students or school personnel or in an area where smoking is otherwise prohibited by law.

(b) The policy shall include at least all of the following elements:

(1) Adequate notice to students, parents, the public, and school personnel of the policy.

(2) Posting of signs prohibiting at all times the use of tobacco products by any person in and on school property.

(3) Requirements that school personnel enforce the policy.

(c) The policy may permit tobacco products to be included in instructional or research activities in public school buildings if the activity is conducted or supervised by the faculty member overseeing the instruction or research and the activity does not include smoking, chewing, or otherwise ingesting the tobacco product.

(d) The North Carolina Health and Wellness Trust Fund Commission shall work with local boards of education to provide assistance with the implementation of this policy including providing information regarding smoking cessation and prevention resources. Nothing in this section, G.S. 143_595 through G.S. 143_601, or any other section prohibits a local board of education from adopting and enforcing a more restrictive policy on the use of tobacco in school buildings, in school facilities, on school campuses, or at school_related or school_sponsored events, and in or on other school property.

§ 115C-407.16. Policy against bullying or harassing behavior.

(a) Before December 31, 2009, each local school administrative unit shall adopt a policy prohibiting bullying or harassing behavior.

(b) The policy shall contain, at a minimum, the following components:

(1) A statement prohibiting bullying or harassing behavior.

(2) A definition of bullying or harassing behavior no less inclusive than that set forth in this Article.

(3) A description of the type of behavior expected for each student and school employee.

(4) Consequences and appropriate remedial action for a person who commits an act of bullying or harassment.

(5) A procedure for reporting an act of bullying or harassment, including a provision that permits a person to report such an act anonymously. This shall not be construed to permit formal disciplinary action solely on the basis of an anonymous report.

(6) A procedure for prompt investigation of reports of serious violations and complaints of any act of bullying or harassment, identifying either the principal or the principal's designee as the person responsible for the investigation.

(7) A statement that prohibits reprisal or retaliation against any person who reports an act of bullying or harassment, and the consequence and appropriate remedial action for a person who engages in reprisal or retaliation.

(8) A statement of how the policy is to be disseminated and publicized, including notice that the policy applies to participation in school-sponsored functions.

(c) Nothing in this Article shall prohibit a local school administrative unit from adopting a policy that includes components beyond the minimum components provided in this section or that is more inclusive than the requirements of this Article.

(d) At the beginning of each school year, the principal shall provide the local school administrative unit's policy prohibiting bullying and harassing behavior, including cyber-bullying, to staff, students, and parents as defined in G.S. 115C-390.1(b)(8). Notice of the local policy shall appear in any school unit publication that sets forth the comprehensive rules, procedures, and standards of conduct for schools within the school unit and in any student and school employee handbook.

(e) Information regarding the local policy against bullying or harassing behavior shall be incorporated into a school's employee training program.

(f) To the extent funds are appropriated for these purposes, a local school administrative unit shall, by March 1, 2010, provide training on the local policy to school employees and volunteers who have significant contact with students.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Scope
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-390.1. State policy and definitions.

(a) In order to create and maintain a safe and orderly school environment conducive to learning, school officials and teachers need adequate tools to maintain good discipline in schools. However, the General Assembly also recognizes that removal of students from school, while sometimes necessary, can exacerbate behavioral problems, diminish academic achievement, and hasten school dropout. School discipline must balance these interests to provide a safe and productive learning environment, to continually teach students to respect themselves, others, and property, and to conduct themselves in a manner that fosters their own learning and the learning of those around them.

(b) The following definitions apply in this Article:

(4) Educational property. Any school building or bus, school campus, grounds, recreational area, athletic field, or other property under the control of any local board of education or charter school.

§ 115C-390.2. Discipline policies.

(c) Board policies may authorize suspension for conduct not occurring on educational property, but only if the student's conduct otherwise violates the Code of Student Conduct and the conduct has or is reasonably expected to have a direct and immediate impact on the orderly and efficient operation of the schools or the safety of individuals in the school environment.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Communication of policy
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-390.2. Discipline policies.

(b) Board policies shall include or provide for the development of a Code of Student Conduct that notifies students of the standards of behavior expected of them, conduct that may subject them to discipline, and the range of disciplinary measures that may be used by school officials.

(i) Each local board shall publish all policies, administrative procedures, or school rules mandated by this section and make them available to each student and his or her parent at the beginning of each school year and upon request.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Major Category
In-School Discipline
Sub Category
Use of multi-tiered discipline approaches
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-390.1. State policy and definitions.

(a) In order to create and maintain a safe and orderly school environment conducive to learning, school officials and teachers need adequate tools to maintain good discipline in schools. However, the General Assembly also recognizes that removal of students from school, while sometimes necessary, can exacerbate behavioral problems, diminish academic achievement, and hasten school dropout. School discipline must balance these interests to provide a safe and productive learning environment, to continually teach students to respect themselves, others, and property, and to conduct themselves in a manner that fosters their own learning and the learning of those around them.

§ 115C-390.2. Discipline policies.

(k) School officials are encouraged to use a full range of responses to violations of disciplinary rules, such as conferences, counseling, peer mediation, behavior contracts, instruction in conflict resolution and anger management, detention, academic interventions, community service, and other similar tools that do not remove a student from the classroom or school building.

§ 115C-397.1. Management and placement of disruptive students.

If, after a teacher has requested assistance from the principal two or more times due to a student's disruptive behavior, the teacher finds that the student's disruptive behavior continues to interfere with the academic achievement of that student or other students in the class, then the teacher may refer the matter to a school-based committee. The teacher may request that additional classroom teachers participate in the committee's proceedings. For the purposes of this section, the committee shall notify the student's parent, guardian, or legal custodian and shall encourage that person's participation in the proceedings of the committee concerning the student. Nothing in this section requires a student to be screened, evaluated, or identified as a child with a disability under Article 9 of this Chapter. The committee shall review the matter and shall take one or more of the following actions: (i) advise the teacher on managing the student's behavior more effectively, (ii) recommend to the principal the transfer of the student to another class within the school, (iii) recommend to the principal a multidisciplinary evaluation of the student, (iv) recommend to the principal that the student be assigned to an alternative learning program, or (v) recommend to the principal that the student receive any additional services that the school or the school unit has the resources to provide for the student. If the principal does not follow the recommendation of the committee, the principal shall provide a written explanation to the committee, the teacher who referred the matter to the committee, and the superintendent, of any actions taken to resolve the matter and of the reason the principal did not follow the recommendation of the committee.

This section shall be in addition to the supplemental to disciplinary action taken in accordance with any other law. The recommendation of the committee is final and shall not be appealed under G.S. 115C-45(c). Nothing in this section shall authorize a student to refer a disciplinary matter to this committee or to have the matter of the student's behavior referred to this committee before any discipline is imposed on the student.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Teacher authority to remove students from classrooms
Statute

No relevant laws or regulations found.

Sub Category
Alternatives to suspension
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-390.1. State policy and definitions.

(a) In order to create and maintain a safe and orderly school environment conducive to learning, school officials and teachers need adequate tools to maintain good discipline in schools. However, the General Assembly also recognizes that removal of students from school, while sometimes necessary, can exacerbate behavioral problems, diminish academic achievement, and hasten school dropout. School discipline must balance these interests to provide a safe and productive learning environment, to continually teach students to respect themselves, others, and property, and to conduct themselves in a manner that fosters their own learning and the learning of those around them.

§ 115C-390.2. Discipline policies.

(k) School officials are encouraged to use a full range of responses to violations of disciplinary rules, such as conferences, counseling, peer mediation, behavior contracts, instruction in conflict resolution and anger management, detention, academic interventions, community service, and other similar tools that do not remove a student from the classroom or school building.

(l) (Applicable to children enrolling in the public schools for the first time beginning with the 2016-2017 school year) Board policies shall state that absences under G.S. 130A-440 shall not be suspensions. A student subject to an absence under G.S. 130A-440 shall be provided the following:

(1) The opportunity to take textbooks and school-furnished digital devices home for the duration of the absence.

(2) Upon request, the right to receive all missed assignments and, to the extent practicable, the materials distributed to students in connection with the assignment.

(3) The opportunity to take any quarterly, semester, or grading period examinations missed during the absence period.

§ 115C-397.1. Management and placement of disruptive students.

If, after a teacher has requested assistance from the principal two or more times due to a student's disruptive behavior, the teacher finds that the student's disruptive behavior continues to interfere with the academic achievement of that student or other students in the class, then the teacher may refer the matter to a school-based committee. The teacher may request that additional classroom teachers participate in the committee's proceedings. For the purposes of this section, the committee shall notify the student's parent, guardian, or legal custodian and shall encourage that person's participation in the proceedings of the committee concerning the student. Nothing in this section requires a student to be screened, evaluated, or identified as a child with a disability under Article 9 of this Chapter. The committee shall review the matter and shall take one or more of the following actions: (i) advise the teacher on managing the student's behavior more effectively, (ii) recommend to the principal the transfer of the student to another class within the school, (iii) recommend to the principal a multidisciplinary evaluation of the student, (iv) recommend to the principal that the student be assigned to an alternative learning program, or (v) recommend to the principal that the student receive any additional services that the school or the school unit has the resources to provide for the student. If the principal does not follow the recommendation of the committee, the principal shall provide a written explanation to the committee, the teacher who referred the matter to the committee, and the superintendent, of any actions taken to resolve the matter and of the reason the principal did not follow the recommendation of the committee.

This section shall be in addition to the supplemental to disciplinary action taken in accordance with any other law. The recommendation of the committee is final and shall not be appealed under G.S. 115C-45(c). Nothing in this section shall authorize a student to refer a disciplinary matter to this committee or to have the matter of the student's behavior referred to this committee before any discipline is imposed on the student.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Use of corporal punishment
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-390.1. State policy and definitions.

(a) In order to create and maintain a safe and orderly school environment conducive to learning, school officials and teachers need adequate tools to maintain good discipline in schools. However, the General Assembly also recognizes that removal of students from school, while sometimes necessary, can exacerbate behavioral problems, diminish academic achievement, and hasten school dropout. School discipline must balance these interests to provide a safe and productive learning environment, to continually teach students to respect themselves, others, and property, and to conduct themselves in a manner that fosters their own learning and the learning of those around them.

(b) The following definitions apply in this Article:

(2) Corporal punishment. The intentional infliction of physical pain upon the body of a student as a disciplinary measure.

§ 115C-390.4. Corporal punishment.

(a) Each local board of education shall determine whether corporal punishment will be permitted in its school administrative unit. Notwithstanding a local board of education's prohibition on the use of corporal punishment, school personnel may use physical restraint in accordance with federal law and G.S. 115C-391.1 and reasonable force pursuant to G.S. 115C-390.3.

(b) To the extent that corporal punishment is permitted, the policies adopted for the administration of corporal punishment shall include at a minimum the following:

(1) Corporal punishment shall not be administered in a classroom with other students present.

(2) Only a teacher, principal, or assistant principal may administer corporal punishment and may do so only in the presence of a principal, assistant principal, or teacher who shall be informed beforehand and in the student's presence of the reason for the punishment.

(3) A school person shall provide the student's parent with notification that corporal punishment has been administered, and the person who administered the corporal punishment shall provide the student's parent a written explanation of the reasons and the name of the second person who was present.

(4) The school shall maintain records of each administration of corporal punishment and the reasons for its administration.

(5) In no event shall excessive force be used in the administration of corporal punishment. Excessive force includes force that results in injury to the child that requires medical attention beyond simple first aid.

(6) Corporal punishment shall not be administered on a student whose parent or guardian has stated in writing that corporal punishment shall not be administered to that student. Parents and guardians shall be given a form to make such an election at the beginning of the school year or when the student first enters the school during the year. The form shall advise the parent or guardian that the student may be subject to suspension, among other possible punishments, for offenses that would otherwise not require suspension if corporal punishment were available. If the parent or guardian does not return the form, corporal punishment may be administered on the student.

(c) Each local board of education shall report annually to the State Board of Education, in a manner prescribed by the State Board of Education, on the number of times that corporal punishment was administered. The report shall be in compliance with the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1232g, and shall include the following:

(1) The number of students who received corporal punishment.

(2) The number of students who received corporal punishment who were also students with disabilities and were eligible to receive special education and related services under the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act,20 U.S.C. § 1400, et seq.

(3) The grade level of the students who received corporal punishment.

(4) The race, gender, and ethnicity of the students who received corporal punishment.

(5) The reason for the administration of the corporal punishment for each student who received corporal punishment.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Use of student and locker searches
Statute

No relevant laws or regulations found.

Sub Category
Other in-school disciplinary approaches
Statute

No relevant laws or regulations found.

Major Category
Out-of-School and Exclusionary Discipline: Suspension,Expulsion, Restraint and Seclusion, and Alternative Placements
Sub Category
Grounds for possible suspension or expulsion
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-390.1. State policy and definitions.

(a) In order to create and maintain a safe and orderly school environment conducive to learning, school officials and teachers need adequate tools to maintain good discipline in schools. However, the General Assembly also recognizes that removal of students from school, while sometimes necessary, can exacerbate behavioral problems, diminish academic achievement, and hasten school dropout. School discipline must balance these interests to provide a safe and productive learning environment, to continually teach students to respect themselves, others, and property, and to conduct themselves in a manner that fosters their own learning and the learning of those around them.

(b) The following definitions apply in this Article:

(5) Expulsion. The indefinite exclusion of a student from school enrollment for disciplinary purposes.

(7) Long-term suspension. The exclusion for more than 10 school days of a student from school attendance for disciplinary purposes from the school to which the student was assigned at the time of the disciplinary action. If the offense leading to the long-term suspension occurs before the final quarter of the school year, the exclusion shall be no longer than the remainder of the school year in which the offense was committed. If the offense leading to the long-term suspension occurs during the final quarter of the school year, the exclusion may include a period up to the remainder of the school year in which the offense was committed and the first semester of the following school year.

(12) Short-term suspension. The exclusion of a student from school attendance for disciplinary purposes for up to 10 school days from the school to which the student was assigned at the time of the disciplinary action.

§ 115C-390.5. Short-term suspension.

(a) The principal shall have authority to impose short-term suspension on a student who willfully engages in conduct that violates a provision of the Code of Student Conduct authorizing short-term suspension.

§ 115C-390.7. Long-term suspension.

(a) A principal may recommend to the superintendent the long-term suspension of any student who willfully engages in conduct that violates a provision of the Code of Student Conduct that authorizes long-term suspension.

§ 115C-390.11. Expulsion.

(a) Upon recommendation of the superintendent, a local board of education may expel any student 14 years of age or older whose continued presence in school constitutes a clear threat to the safety of other students or school staff. Prior to the expulsion of any student, the local board shall conduct a hearing to determine whether the student's continued presence in school constitutes a clear threat to the safety of other students or school staff. The student shall be given reasonable notice of the recommendation in accordance with G.S. 115C-390.8(a) and (b), as well as reasonable notice of the time and place of the scheduled hearing.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Grounds for mandatory suspension or expulsion
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-390.1. State policy and definitions.

(a) In order to create and maintain a safe and orderly school environment conducive to learning, school officials and teachers need adequate tools to maintain good discipline in schools. However, the General Assembly also recognizes that removal of students from school, while sometimes necessary, can exacerbate behavioral problems, diminish academic achievement, and hasten school dropout. School discipline must balance these interests to provide a safe and productive learning environment, to continually teach students to respect themselves, others, and property, and to conduct themselves in a manner that fosters their own learning and the learning of those around them.

(b) The following definitions apply in this Article:

(3) Destructive device. An explosive, incendiary, or poison gas:

a. Bomb.

b. Grenade.

c. Rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces.

d. Missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce.

e. Mine.

f. Device similar to any of the devices listed in this subdivision.

(5) Expulsion. The indefinite exclusion of a student from school enrollment for disciplinary purposes.

(6) Firearm. Any of the following:

a. A weapon, including a starter gun, which will or is designed to or may readily be converted to expel a projectile by the action of an explosive.

b. The frame or receiver of any such weapon.

c. Any firearm muffler or firearm silencer.

The term shall not include an inoperable antique firearm, a BB gun, stun gun, air rifle, or air pistol.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of this Article, the policies and procedures for the discipline of students shall be consistent with the requirements of the Gun Free Schools Act, 20 U.S.C. § 7151, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 29 U.S.C. § 1400, et seq., section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. § 701, et seq., and with other federal laws and regulations.

§ 115C-390.10. 365-day suspension for gun possession.

(a) All local boards of education shall develop and implement written policies and procedures, as required by the federal Gun Free Schools Act, 20 U.SC. § 7151, requiring suspension for 365 calendar days of any student who is determined to have brought or been in possession of a firearm or destructive device on educational property, or to a school-sponsored event off of educational property. A principal shall recommend to the superintendent the 365-day suspension of any student believed to have violated board policies regarding weapons. The superintendent has the authority to suspend for 365 days a student who has been recommended for such suspension by the principal when such recommendation is consistent with board policies. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the superintendent may modify, in writing, the required 365-day suspension for an individual student on a case-by-case basis. The superintendent shall not impose a 365-day suspension if the superintendent determines that the student took or received the firearm or destructive device from another person at school or found the firearm or destructive device at school, provided that the student delivered or reported the firearm or destructive device as soon as practicable to a law enforcement officer or a school employee and had no intent to use such firearm or destructive device in a harmful or threatening way.

(b) The principal must report all incidents of firearms or destructive devices on educational property or at a school_sponsored event as required by G.S. 115C_288(g) and State Board of Education policy.

(c) Nothing in this provision shall apply to a firearm that was brought onto educational property for activities approved and authorized by the local board of education, provided that the local board of education has adopted appropriate safeguards to protect student safety.

(d) At the time the student and parent receive notice that the student is suspended for 365 days under this section, the superintendent shall provide notice to the student and the student's parent of the right to petition the local board of education for readmission pursuant to G.S. 115C_390.12.

(e) The procedures described in G.S. 115C_390.8 apply to students facing a 365_day suspension pursuant to this section.

(f) Students who are suspended for 365 days pursuant to this section shall be considered for alternative educational services consistent with the provisions of G.S. 115C_390.9.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Limitations, conditions, or exclusions for use of suspension and expulsion
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-390.1. State policy and definitions.

(a) In order to create and maintain a safe and orderly school environment conducive to learning, school officials and teachers need adequate tools to maintain good discipline in schools. However, the General Assembly also recognizes that removal of students from school, while sometimes necessary, can exacerbate behavioral problems, diminish academic achievement, and hasten school dropout. School discipline must balance these interests to provide a safe and productive learning environment, to continually teach students to respect themselves, others, and property, and to conduct themselves in a manner that fosters their own learning and the learning of those around them.

(b) The following definitions apply in this Article:

(1) Alternative education services. Part or full-time programs, wherever situated, providing direct or computer-based instruction that allow a student to progress in one or more core academic courses. Alternative education services include programs established by the local board of education in conformity with G.S. 115C-105.47A and local board of education policies.

(2) Corporal punishment. The intentional infliction of physical pain upon the body of a student as a disciplinary measure.

(3) Destructive device. An explosive, incendiary, or poison gas:

a. Bomb.

b. Grenade.

c. Rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces.

d. Missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce.

e. Mine.

f. Device similar to any of the devices listed in this subdivision.

(4) Educational property. Any school building or bus, school campus, grounds, recreational area, athletic field, or other property under the control of any local board of education or charter school.

(5) Expulsion. The indefinite exclusion of a student from school enrollment for disciplinary purposes.

(6) Firearm. Any of the following:

a. A weapon, including a starter gun, which will or is designed to or may readily be converted to expel a projectile by the action of an explosive.

b. The frame or receiver of any such weapon.

c. Any firearm muffler or firearm silencer.

The term shall not include an inoperable antique firearm, a BB gun, stun gun, air rifle, or air pistol.

(7) Long-term suspension. The exclusion for more than 10 school days of a student from school attendance for disciplinary purposes from the school to which the student was assigned at the time of the disciplinary action. If the offense leading to the long-term suspension occurs before the final quarter of the school year, the exclusion shall be no longer than the remainder of the school year in which the offense was committed. If the offense leading to the long-term suspension occurs during the final quarter of the school year, the exclusion may include a period up to the remainder of the school year in which the offense was committed and the first semester of the following school year.

(8) Parent. Includes a parent, legal guardian, legal custodian, or other caregiver adult who is acting in the place of a parent and is entitled to enroll the student in school under Article 25 of this Chapter.

(9) Principal. Includes the principal and the principal's designee.

(10) School official. A superintendent or any other central office administrator to whom the superintendent has delegated duties under this Article and any principal or assistant principal.

(11) School personnel. Any of the following:

a. An employee of a local board of education.

b. Any person working on school grounds or at a school function under a contract or written agreement with the public school system to provide educational or related services to students.

c. Any person working on school grounds or at a school function for another agency providing educational or related services to students.

(12) Short-term suspension. The exclusion of a student from school attendance for disciplinary purposes for up to 10 school days from the school to which the student was assigned at the time of the disciplinary action.

(13) Substantial evidence. Such relevant evidence as a reasonable person might accept as adequate to support a conclusion; it is more than a scintilla or permissible inference.

(14) Superintendent. Includes the superintendent and the superintendent's designee.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of this Article, the policies and procedures for the discipline of students shall be consistent with the requirements of the Gun Free Schools Act, 20 U.S.C. § 7151, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 29 U.S.C. § 1400, et seq., section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. § 701, et seq., and with other federal laws and regulations.

§ 115C-390.2. Discipline policies.

(c) Board policies may authorize suspension for conduct not occurring on educational property, but only if the student's conduct otherwise violates the Code of Student Conduct and the conduct has or is reasonably expected to have a direct and immediate impact on the orderly and efficient operation of the schools or the safety of individuals in the school environment.

(d) Board policies shall not allow students to be long-term suspended or expelled from school solely for truancy or tardiness offenses and shall not allow short-term suspension of more than two days for such offenses.

(e) Board policies shall not impose mandatory long-term suspensions or expulsions for specific violations unless otherwise provided in State or federal law.

(f) Board policies shall minimize the use of long-term suspension and expulsion by restricting the availability of long-term suspension or expulsion to those violations deemed to be serious violations of the board's Code of Student Conduct that either threaten the safety of students, staff, or school visitors or threaten to substantially disrupt the educational environment. Examples of conduct that would not be deemed to be a serious violation include the use of inappropriate or disrespectful language, noncompliance with a staff directive, dress code violations, and minor physical altercations that do not involve weapons or injury. The principal may, however, in his or her discretion, determine that aggravating circumstances justify treating a minor violation as a serious violation.

(g) Board policies shall not prohibit the superintendent and principals from considering the student's intent, disciplinary and academic history, the potential benefits to the student of alternatives to suspension, and other mitigating or aggravating factors when deciding whether to recommend or impose long-term suspension.

(h) Board policies shall include the procedures to be followed by school officials in suspending, expelling, or administering corporal punishment to any student, which shall be consistent with this Article.

(i) Each local board shall publish all policies, administrative procedures, or school rules mandated by this section and make them available to each student and his or her parent at the beginning of each school year and upon request.

(j) Local boards of education are encouraged to include in their safe schools plans, adopted pursuant to G.S. 115C-105.47, research-based behavior management programs that take positive approaches to improving student behaviors.

(k) School officials are encouraged to use a full range of responses to violations of disciplinary rules, such as conferences, counseling, peer mediation, behavior contracts, instruction in conflict resolution and anger management, detention, academic interventions, community service, and other similar tools that do not remove a student from the classroom or school building.

(l) (Applicable to children enrolling in the public schools for the first time beginning with the 2016-2017 school year) Board policies shall state that absences under G.S. 130A-440 shall not be suspensions. A student subject to an absence under G.S. 130A-440 shall be provided the following:

(1) The opportunity to take textbooks and school-furnished digital devices home for the duration of the absence.

(2) Upon request, the right to receive all missed assignments and, to the extent practicable, the materials distributed to students in connection with the assignment.

(3) The opportunity to take any quarterly, semester, or grading period examinations missed during the absence period.

§ 115C-390.5. Short-term suspension.

(b) If a student's short-term suspensions accumulate to more than 10 days in a semester, to the extent the principal has not already done so, he or she shall invoke the mechanisms provided for in the applicable safe schools plan adopted pursuant to G.S. 115C-105.47(b)(5) and (b)(6).

(c) A student subject to short-term suspension shall be provided the following:

(1) The opportunity to take textbooks home for the duration of the suspension.

(2) Upon request, the right to receive all missed assignments and, to the extent practicable, the materials distributed to students in connection with the assignment.

(3) The opportunity to take any quarterly, semester, or grading period examinations missed during the suspension period.

§ 115C-390.6. Short-term suspension procedures.

(a) Except as authorized in this section, no short-term suspension shall be imposed upon a student without first providing the student an opportunity for an informal hearing with the principal. The notice to the student of the charges may be oral or written, and the hearing may be held immediately after the notice is given. The student has the right to be present, to be informed of the charges and the basis for the accusations, and to make statements in defense or mitigation of the charges.

§ 115C-390.7. Long-term suspension.

(a) Only the superintendent has the authority to long-term suspend a student.

(b) Before the superintendent's imposition of a long-term suspension, the student must be provided an opportunity for a hearing consistent with G.S. 115C-390.8.

(c) If the student recommended for long-term suspension declines the opportunity for a hearing, the superintendent shall review the circumstances of the recommended long-term suspension. Following such review, the superintendent (i) may impose the suspension if is it consistent with board policies and appropriate under the circumstances, (ii) may impose another appropriate penalty authorized by board policy, or (iii) may decline to impose any penalty.

(d) If a teacher is assaulted or injured by a student and as a result the student is long-term suspended or reassigned to alternative education services, the student shall not be returned to that teacher's classroom unless the teacher consents.

§ 115C-390.11. Expulsion.

(b) During the expulsion, the student is not entitled to be present on any property of the local school administrative unit and is not considered a student of the local board of education. Nothing in this section shall prevent a local board of education from offering access to some type of alternative educational services that can be provided to the student in a manner that does not create safety risks to other students and school staff.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Administrative procedures related to suspension and expulsion
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-390.1. State policy and definitions.

(a) In order to create and maintain a safe and orderly school environment conducive to learning, school officials and teachers need adequate tools to maintain good discipline in schools. However, the General Assembly also recognizes that removal of students from school, while sometimes necessary, can exacerbate behavioral problems, diminish academic achievement, and hasten school dropout. School discipline must balance these interests to provide a safe and productive learning environment, to continually teach students to respect themselves, others, and property, and to conduct themselves in a manner that fosters their own learning and the learning of those around them.

(b) The following definitions apply in this Article:

(1) Alternative education services. Part or full-time programs, wherever situated, providing direct or computer-based instruction that allow a student to progress in one or more core academic courses. Alternative education services include programs established by the local board of education in conformity with G.S. 115C-105.47A and local board of education policies.

(2) Corporal punishment. The intentional infliction of physical pain upon the body of a student as a disciplinary measure.

(3) Destructive device. An explosive, incendiary, or poison gas:

a. Bomb.

b. Grenade.

c. Rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces.

d. Missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce.

e. Mine.

f. Device similar to any of the devices listed in this subdivision.

(4) Educational property. Any school building or bus, school campus, grounds, recreational area, athletic field, or other property under the control of any local board of education or charter school.

(5) Expulsion. The indefinite exclusion of a student from school enrollment for disciplinary purposes.

(6) Firearm. Any of the following:

a. A weapon, including a starter gun, which will or is designed to or may readily be converted to expel a projectile by the action of an explosive.

b. The frame or receiver of any such weapon.

c. Any firearm muffler or firearm silencer.

The term shall not include an inoperable antique firearm, a BB gun, stun gun, air rifle, or air pistol.

(7) Long-term suspension. The exclusion for more than 10 school days of a student from school attendance for disciplinary purposes from the school to which the student was assigned at the time of the disciplinary action. If the offense leading to the long-term suspension occurs before the final quarter of the school year, the exclusion shall be no longer than the remainder of the school year in which the offense was committed. If the offense leading to the long-term suspension occurs during the final quarter of the school year, the exclusion may include a period up to the remainder of the school year in which the offense was committed and the first semester of the following school year.

(8) Parent. Includes a parent, legal guardian, legal custodian, or other caregiver adult who is acting in the place of a parent and is entitled to enroll the student in school under Article 25 of this Chapter.

(9) Principal. Includes the principal and the principal's designee.

(10) School official. A superintendent or any other central office administrator to whom the superintendent has delegated duties under this Article and any principal or assistant principal.

(11) School personnel. Any of the following:

a. An employee of a local board of education.

b. Any person working on school grounds or at a school function under a contract or written agreement with the public school system to provide educational or related services to students.

c. Any person working on school grounds or at a school function for another agency providing educational or related services to students.

(12) Short-term suspension. The exclusion of a student from school attendance for disciplinary purposes for up to 10 school days from the school to which the student was assigned at the time of the disciplinary action.

(13) Substantial evidence. Such relevant evidence as a reasonable person might accept as adequate to support a conclusion; it is more than a scintilla or permissible inference.

(14) Superintendent. Includes the superintendent and the superintendent's designee.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of this Article, the policies and procedures for the discipline of students shall be consistent with the requirements of the Gun Free Schools Act, 20 U.S.C. § 7151, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 29 U.S.C. § 1400, et seq., section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. § 701, et seq., and with other federal laws and regulations.

§ 115C-390.2. Discipline policies.

(a) Local boards of education shall adopt policies to govern the conduct of students and establish procedures to be followed by school officials in disciplining students. These policies must be consistent with the provisions of this Article and the constitutions, statutes, and regulations of the United States and the State of North Carolina.

(b) Board policies shall include or provide for the development of a Code of Student Conduct that notifies students of the standards of behavior expected of them, conduct that may subject them to discipline, and the range of disciplinary measures that may be used by school officials.

(c) Board policies may authorize suspension for conduct not occurring on educational property, but only if the student's conduct otherwise violates the Code of Student Conduct and the conduct has or is reasonably expected to have a direct and immediate impact on the orderly and efficient operation of the schools or the safety of individuals in the school environment.

(d) Board policies shall not allow students to be long-term suspended or expelled from school solely for truancy or tardiness offenses and shall not allow short-term suspension of more than two days for such offenses.

(e) Board policies shall not impose mandatory long-term suspensions or expulsions for specific violations unless otherwise provided in State or federal law.

(f) Board policies shall minimize the use of long-term suspension and expulsion by restricting the availability of long-term suspension or expulsion to those violations deemed to be serious violations of the board's Code of Student Conduct that either threaten the safety of students, staff, or school visitors or threaten to substantially disrupt the educational environment. Examples of conduct that would not be deemed to be a serious violation include the use of inappropriate or disrespectful language, noncompliance with a staff directive, dress code violations, and minor physical altercations that do not involve weapons or injury. The principal may, however, in his or her discretion, determine that aggravating circumstances justify treating a minor violation as a serious violation.

(g) Board policies shall not prohibit the superintendent and principals from considering the student's intent, disciplinary and academic history, the potential benefits to the student of alternatives to suspension, and other mitigating or aggravating factors when deciding whether to recommend or impose long-term suspension.

(h) Board policies shall include the procedures to be followed by school officials in suspending, expelling, or administering corporal punishment to any student, which shall be consistent with this Article.

(i) Each local board shall publish all policies, administrative procedures, or school rules mandated by this section and make them available to each student and his or her parent at the beginning of each school year and upon request.

(j) Local boards of education are encouraged to include in their safe schools plans, adopted pursuant to G.S. 115C-105.47, research-based behavior management programs that take positive approaches to improving student behaviors.

(k) School officials are encouraged to use a full range of responses to violations of disciplinary rules, such as conferences, counseling, peer mediation, behavior contracts, instruction in conflict resolution and anger management, detention, academic interventions, community service, and other similar tools that do not remove a student from the classroom or school building.

(l) (Applicable to children enrolling in the public schools for the first time beginning with the 2016-2017 school year) Board policies shall state that absences under G.S. 130A-440 shall not be suspensions. A student subject to an absence under G.S. 130A-440 shall be provided the following:

(1) The opportunity to take textbooks and school-furnished digital devices home for the duration of the absence.

(2) Upon request, the right to receive all missed assignments and, to the extent practicable, the materials distributed to students in connection with the assignment.

(3) The opportunity to take any quarterly, semester, or grading period examinations missed during the absence period.

§ 115C-390.6. Short-term suspension procedures.

(a) Except as authorized in this section, no short-term suspension shall be imposed upon a student without first providing the student an opportunity for an informal hearing with the principal. The notice to the student of the charges may be oral or written, and the hearing may be held immediately after the notice is given. The student has the right to be present, to be informed of the charges and the basis for the accusations, and to make statements in defense or mitigation of the charges.

(b) The principal may impose a short-term suspension without providing the student an opportunity for a hearing if the presence of the student creates a direct and immediate threat to the safety of other students or staff, or substantially disrupts or interferes with the education of other students or the maintenance of discipline at the school. In such cases, the notice of the charges and informal hearing described in subsection (a) of this section shall occur as soon as practicable.

(c) The principal shall provide notice to the student's parent of any short_term suspension, including the reason for the suspension and a description of the alleged student conduct upon which the suspension is based. The notice shall be given by the end of the workday during which the suspension is imposed when reasonably possible, but in no event more than two days after the suspension is imposed. The notice shall be given by certified mail, telephone, facsimile, e_mail, or any other method reasonably designed to achieve actual notice.

(d) If English is the second language of the parent, the notice shall be provided in the parent's primary language, when the appropriate foreign language resources are readily available, and in English, and both versions shall be in plain language and shall be easily understandable.

(e) A student is not entitled to appeal the principal's decision to impose a short-term suspension to the superintendent or local board of education. Further, such a decision is not subject to judicial review. Notwithstanding this subsection, the local board of education, in its discretion, may provide students an opportunity for a review or appeal of a short-term suspension to the superintendent or local board of education.

§ 115C-390.8. Long-term suspension procedures.

(a) When a student is recommended by the principal for long-term suspension, the principal shall give written notice to the student's parent. The notice shall be provided to the student's parent by the end of the workday during which the suspension was recommended when reasonably possible or as soon thereafter as practicable. The written notice shall provide at least the following information:

(1) A description of the incident and the student's conduct that led to the long-term suspension recommendation.

(2) A reference to the provisions of the Code of Student Conduct that the student is alleged to have violated.

(3) The specific process by which the parent may request a hearing to contest the decision, including the number of days within which the hearing must be requested.

(4) The process by which a hearing will be held, including, at a minimum, the procedures described in subsection (e) of this section.

(5) Notice that the parent is permitted to retain an attorney to represent the student in the hearing process.

(6) The extent to which the local board policy permits the parent to have an advocate, instead of an attorney, accompany the student to assist in the presentation of his or her appeal.

(7) Notice that the parent has the right to review and obtain copies of the student's educational records before the hearing.

(8) A reference to the local board policy on the expungement of discipline records as required by G.S. 115C-402.

(b) Written notice may be provided by certified mail, fax, e-mail, or any other written method reasonably designed to achieve actual notice of the recommendation for long-term suspension. When school personnel are aware that English is not the primary language of the parent or guardian, the notice shall be written in both English and in the primary language of the parent or guardian when the appropriate foreign language resources are readily available. All notices described in this section shall be written in plain English, and shall include the following information translated into the dominant non-English language used by residents within the local school administrative unit:

(1) The nature of the document, i.e., that it is a long-term suspension notice.

(2) The process by which the parent may request a hearing to contest the long-term suspension.

(3) The identity and phone number of a school employee that the parent may call to obtain assistance in understanding the English language information included in the document.

(c) No long-term suspension shall be imposed on a student until an opportunity for a formal hearing is provided to the student. If a hearing is timely requested, it shall be held and a decision issued before a long-term suspension is imposed, except as otherwise provided in this subsection. The student and parent shall be given reasonable notice of the time and place of the hearing.

(1) If no hearing is timely requested, the superintendent shall follow the procedures described in G.S. 115C-390.7(c).

(2) If the student or parent requests a postponement of the hearing, or if the hearing is requested beyond the time set for such request, the hearing shall be scheduled, but the student shall not have the right to return to school pending the hearing.

(3) If neither the student nor parent appears for the scheduled hearing, after having been given reasonable notice of the time and place of the hearing, the parent and student are deemed to have waived the right to a hearing and the superintendent shall conduct the review required by G.S. 115C-390.7(c).

(d) The formal hearing may be conducted by the local board of education, by the superintendent, or by a person or group of persons appointed by the local board or superintendent to serve as a hearing officer or hearing panel. Neither the board nor the superintendent shall appoint any individual to serve as a hearing officer or on a hearing panel who is under the direct supervision of the principal recommending suspension. If the hearing is conducted by an appointed hearing officer or hearing panel, such officer or panel shall determine the relevant facts and credibility of witnesses based on the evidence presented at the hearing. Following the hearing, the superintendent or local board shall make a final decision regarding the suspension. The superintendent or board shall adopt the hearing officer's or panel's factual determinations unless they are not supported by substantial evidence in the record.

(e) Long-term suspension hearings shall be conducted in accordance with policies adopted by the board of education. Such policies shall offer the student procedural due process including, but not limited to, the following:

(1) The right to be represented at the hearing by counsel or, in the discretion of the local board, a non-attorney advocate.

(2) The right to be present at the hearing, accompanied by his or her parents.

(3) The right of the student, parent, and the student's representative to review before the hearing any audio or video recordings of the incident and, consistent with federal and State student records laws and regulations, the information supporting the suspension that may be presented as evidence at the hearing, including statements made by witnesses related to the charges consistent with subsection (h) of this section.

(4) The right of the student, parent, or the student's representative to question witnesses appearing at the hearing.

(5) The right to present evidence on his or her own behalf, which may include written statements or oral testimony, relating to the incident leading to the suspension, as well as any of the factors listed in G.S. 115C-390.2(g).

(6) The right to have a record made of the hearing.

(7) The right to make his or her own audio recording of the hearing.

(8) The right to a written decision, based on substantial evidence presented at the hearing, either upholding, modifying, or rejecting the principal's recommendation of suspension and containing at least the following information:

a. The basis for the decision, including a reference to any policy or rule that the student is determined to have violated.

b. Notice of what information will be included in the student's official record pursuant to G.S. 115C-402.

c. The student's right to appeal the decision and notice of the procedures for such appeal.

(f) Following the issuance of the decision, the superintendent shall implement the decision by authorizing the student's return to school or by imposing the suspension reflected in the decision.

(g) Unless the decision was made by the local board, the student may appeal the decision to the local board in accordance with G.S. 115C-45(c) and policies adopted by the board. Notwithstanding the provisions of G.S. 115C-45(c), a student's appeal to the board of a decision upholding a long-term suspension shall be heard and a final written decision issued in not more than 30 calendar days following the request for such appeal.

(h) Nothing in this section shall compel school officials to release names or other information that could allow the student or his or her representative to identify witnesses when such identification could create a safety risk for the witness.

(i) A decision of the local board to uphold the long-term suspension of a student is subject to judicial review in accordance with Article 4 of Chapter 150B of the General Statutes. The action must be brought within 30 days of the local board's decision. A person seeking judicial review shall file a petition in the superior court of the county where the local board made its decision. Local rules notwithstanding, petitions for judicial review of a long-term suspension shall be set for hearing in the first succeeding term of superior court in the county following the filing of the certified copy of the official record.

§ 115C-390.10. 365-day suspension for gun possession.

(e) The procedures described in G.S. 115C-390.8 apply to students facing a 365-day suspension pursuant to this section.

§ 115C-390.11. Expulsion.

(a) Upon recommendation of the superintendent, a local board of education may expel any student 14 years of age or older whose continued presence in school constitutes a clear threat to the safety of other students or school staff. Prior to the expulsion of any student, the local board shall conduct a hearing to determine whether the student's continued presence in school constitutes a clear threat to the safety of other students or school staff. The student shall be given reasonable notice of the recommendation in accordance with G.S. 115C-390.8(a) and (b), as well as reasonable notice of the time and place of the scheduled hearing.

(1) The procedures described in G.S. 115C-390.8(e)(1)-(8) apply to students facing expulsion pursuant to this section, except that the decision to expel a student by the local board of education shall be based on clear and convincing evidence that the student's continued presence in school constitutes a clear threat to the safety of other students and school staff.

(2) A local board of education may expel any student subject to G.S. 14-208.18 in accordance with the procedures of this section. Prior to ordering the expulsion of a student, the local board of education shall consider whether there are alternative education services that may be offered to the student. As provided by G.S. 14-208.18(f), if the local board of education determines that the student shall be provided educational services on school property, the student shall be under the supervision of school personnel at all times.

(3) At the time a student is expelled under this section, the student shall be provided notice of the right to petition for readmission pursuant to G.S. 115C-390.12.

§ 115C-392. Appeal of disciplinary measures.

Appeals of disciplinary measures are subject to the provisions of G.S. 115C-45(c).

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
In-school suspension
Statute

No relevant laws or regulations found.

Sub Category
Return to school following removal
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-390.12. Request for readmission.

(a) All students suspended for 365 days or expelled may, after 180 calendar days from the date of the beginning of the student's suspension or expulsion, request in writing readmission to the local school administrative unit. The local board of education shall develop and publish written policies and procedures for the readmission of all students who have been expelled or suspended for 365 days, which shall provide, at a minimum, the following process:

(1) The process for 365-day suspended students.

a. At the local board's discretion, either the superintendent or the local board itself shall consider and decide on petitions for readmission. If the decision maker is the superintendent, the superintendent shall offer the student an opportunity for an in-person meeting. If the decision maker is the local board of education, the board may offer the student an in-person meeting or may make a determination based on the records submitted by the student and the superintendent.

b. The student shall be readmitted if the student demonstrates to the satisfaction of the board or superintendent that the student's presence in school no longer constitutes a threat to the safety of other students or staff.

c. A superintendent's decision not to readmit the student may be appealed to the local board of education pursuant to G.S. 115C-45(c). The superintendent shall notify the parents of the right to appeal.

d. There is no right to judicial review of the board's decision not to readmit a 365-day suspended student.

e. A decision on readmission under this subsection shall be issued within 30 days of the petition.

(2) The process for expelled students.

a. The board of education shall consider all petitions for readmission of expelled students, together with the recommendation of the superintendent on the matter, and shall rule on the request for readmission. The board shall consider the petition based on the records submitted by the student and the response by the administration and shall allow the parties to be heard in the same manner as provided by G.S. 115C-45(c).

b. The student shall be readmitted if the student demonstrates to the satisfaction of the board or superintendent that his or her presence in a school no longer constitutes a clear threat to the safety of other students or staff.

c. A decision by a board of education to deny readmission of an expelled student is not subject to judicial review.

d. An expelled student may subsequently request readmission not more often than every six months. The local board of education is not required to consider subsequent readmission petitions filed sooner than six months after the previous petition was filed.

e. A decision on readmission under this section shall be issued within 30 days of the petition.

(b) If a student is readmitted under this section, the board and the superintendent have the right to assign the student to any program within the school system and to place reasonable conditions on the readmission.

(c) If a teacher was assaulted or injured by a student, and as a result the student was expelled, the student shall not be returned to that teacher's classroom following readmission unless the teacher consents.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Use of restraint and seclusion
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C_390.3. Reasonable force.

(a) School personnel may use physical restraint only in accordance with G.S. 115C_391.1.

(b) School personnel may use reasonable force to control behavior or to remove a person from the scene in those situations when necessary for any of the following reasons:

(1) To correct students.

(2) To quell a disturbance threatening injury to others.

(3) To obtain possession of weapons or other dangerous objects on the person, or within the control, of a student.

(4) For self_defense.

(5) For the protection of persons or property.

(6) To maintain order on educational property, in the classroom, or at a school_related activity on or off educational property.

(c) Notwithstanding any other law, no officer or employee of the State Board of Education or of a local board of education shall be civilly liable for using reasonable force in conformity with State law, State or local rules, or State or local policies regarding the control, discipline, suspension, and expulsion of students. Furthermore, the burden of proof is on the claimant to show that the amount of force used was not reasonable.

(d) No school employee shall be reprimanded or dismissed for acting or failing to act to stop or intervene in an altercation between students if the employee's actions are consistent with local board policies. Local boards of education shall adopt policies, pursuant to their authority under G.S. 115C_47(18), which provide guidelines for an employee's response if the employee has personal knowledge or actual notice of an altercation between students.

§ 115C-391.1. Permissible use of seclusion and restraint.

(a) It is the policy of the State of North Carolina to:

(1) Promote safety and prevent harm to all students, staff, and visitors in the public schools.

(2) Treat all public school students with dignity and respect in the delivery of discipline, use of physical restraints or seclusion, and use of reasonable force as permitted by law.

(3) Provide school staff with clear guidelines about what constitutes use of reasonable force permissible in North Carolina public schools.

(4) Improve student achievement, attendance, promotion, and graduation rates by employing positive behavioral interventions to address student behavior in a positive and safe manner.

(5) Promote retention of valuable teachers and other school personnel by providing appropriate training in prescribed procedures, which address student behavior in a positive and safe manner.

(b) The following definitions apply in this section:

(1) "Assistive technology device" means any item, piece of equipment, or product system that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capacities of a child with a disability.

(2) "Aversive procedure" means a systematic physical or sensory intervention program for modifying the behavior of a student with a disability which causes or reasonably may be expected to cause one or more of the following:

a. Significant physical harm, such as tissue damage, physical illness, or death.

b. Serious, foreseeable long_term psychological impairment.

c. Obvious repulsion on the part of observers who cannot reconcile extreme procedures with acceptable, standard practice, for example: electric shock applied to the body; extremely loud auditory stimuli; forcible introduction of foul substances to the mouth, eyes, ears, nose, or skin; placement in a tub of cold water or shower; slapping, pinching, hitting, or pulling hair; blindfolding or other forms of visual blocking; unreasonable withholding of meals; eating one's own vomit; or denial of reasonable access to toileting facilities.

(3) "Behavioral intervention" means the implementation of strategies to address behavior that is dangerous, disruptive, or otherwise impedes the learning of a student or others.

(4) "IEP" means a student's Individualized Education Plan.

(5) "Isolation" means a behavior management technique in which a student is placed alone in an enclosed space from which the student is not prevented from leaving.

(6) "Law enforcement officer" means a sworn law enforcement officer with the power to arrest.

(7) "Mechanical restraint" means the use of any device or material attached or adjacent to a student's body that restricts freedom of movement or normal access to any portion of the student's body and that the student cannot easily remove.

(8) "Physical restraint" means the use of physical force to restrict the free movement of all or a portion of a student's body.

(9) "School personnel" means:

a. Employees of a local board of education.

b. Any person working on school grounds or at a school function under a contract or written agreement with the public school system to provide educational or related services to students.

c. Any person working on school grounds or at a school function for another agency providing educational or related services to students.

(10) "Seclusion" means the confinement of a student alone in an enclosed space from which the student is:

a. Physically prevented from leaving by locking hardware or other means.

b. Not capable of leaving due to physical or intellectual incapacity.

(11) "Time_out" means a behavior management technique in which a student is separated from other students for a limited period of time in a monitored setting.

(c) Physical Restraint:

(1) Physical restraint of students by school personnel shall be considered a reasonable use of force when used in the following circumstances:

a. As reasonably needed to obtain possession of a weapon or other dangerous objects on a person or within the control of a person.

b. As reasonably needed to maintain order or prevent or break up a fight.

c. As reasonably needed for self-defense.

d. As reasonably needed to ensure the safety of any student, school employee, volunteer, or other person present, to teach a skill, to calm or comfort a student, or to prevent self-injurious behavior.

e. As reasonably needed to escort a student safely from one area to another.

f. If used as provided for in a student's IEP or Section 504 plan or behavior intervention plan.

g. As reasonably needed to prevent imminent destruction to school or another person's property.

(2) Except as set forth in subdivision (1) of this subsection, physical restraint of students shall not be considered a reasonable use of force, and its use is prohibited.

(3) Physical restraint shall not be considered a reasonable use of force when used solely as a disciplinary consequence.

(4) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prevent the use of force by law enforcement officers in the lawful exercise of their law enforcement duties.

(d) Mechanical Restraint:

(1) Mechanical restraint of students by school personnel is permissible only in the following circumstances:

a. When properly used as an assistive technology device included in the student's IEP or Section 504 plan or behavior intervention plan or as otherwise prescribed for the student by a medical or related service provider.

b. When using seat belts or other safety restraints to secure students during transportation.

c. As reasonably needed to obtain possession of a weapon or other dangerous objects on a person or within the control of a person.

d. As reasonably needed for self-defense.

e. As reasonably needed to ensure the safety of any student, school employee, volunteer, or other person present.

(2) Except as set forth in subdivision (1) of this subsection, mechanical restraint, including the tying, taping, or strapping down of a student, shall not be considered a reasonable use of force, and its use is prohibited.

(3) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prevent the use of mechanical restraint devices such as handcuffs by law enforcement officers in the lawful exercise of their law enforcement duties.

(e) Seclusion:

(1) Seclusion of students by school personnel may be used in the following circumstances:

a. As reasonably needed to respond to a person in control of a weapon or other dangerous object.

b. As reasonably needed to maintain order or prevent or break up a fight.

c. As reasonably needed for self-defense.

d. As reasonably needed when a student's behavior poses a threat of imminent physical harm to self or others or imminent substantial destruction of school or another person's property.

e. When used as specified in the student's IEP, Section 504 plan, or behavior intervention plan; and

1. The student is monitored while in seclusion by an adult in close proximity who is able to see and hear the student at all times.

2. The student is released from seclusion upon cessation of the behaviors that led to the seclusion or as otherwise specified in the student's IEP or Section 504 plan.

3. The space in which the student is confined has been approved for such use by the local education agency.

4. The space is appropriately lighted.

5. The space is appropriately ventilated and heated or cooled.

6. The space is free of objects that unreasonably expose the student or others to harm.

(2) Except as set forth in subdivision (1) of this subsection, the use of seclusion is not considered reasonable force, and its use is not permitted.

(3) Seclusion shall not be considered a reasonable use of force when used solely as a disciplinary consequence.

(4) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prevent the use of seclusion by law enforcement officers in the lawful exercise of their law enforcement duties.

(f) Isolation. -- Isolation is permitted as a behavior management technique provided that:

(1) The space used for isolation is appropriately lighted, ventilated, and heated or cooled.

(2) The duration of the isolation is reasonable in light of the purpose of the isolation.

(3) The student is reasonably monitored while in isolation.

(4) The isolation space is free of objects that unreasonably expose the student or others to harm.

(g) Time-Out. -- Nothing in this section is intended to prohibit or regulate the use of time-out as defined in this section.

(h) Aversive Procedures. -- The use of aversive procedures as defined in this section is prohibited in public schools.

(i) Nothing in this section modifies the rights of school personnel to use reasonable force as permitted under G.S. 115C-390.3 or modifies the rules and procedures governing discipline under G.S. 115C-390.1 through G.S. 115C-390.12.

(j) Notice, Reporting, and Documentation.

(1) Notice of procedures. -- Each local board of education shall provide copies of this section and all local board policies developed to implement this section to school personnel and parents or guardians at the beginning of each school year.

(2) Notice of specified incidents:

a. School personnel shall promptly notify the principal or principal's designee of:

1. Any use of aversive procedures.

2. Any prohibited use of mechanical restraint.

3. Any use of physical restraint resulting in observable physical injury to a student.

4. Any prohibited use of seclusion or seclusion that exceeds 10 minutes or the amount of time specified on a student's behavior intervention plan.

b. When a principal or principal's designee has personal knowledge or actual notice of any of the events described in this subdivision, the principal or principal's designee shall promptly notify the student's parent or guardian and will provide the name of a school employee the parent or guardian can contact regarding the incident.

(3) As used in subdivision (2) of this subsection, "promptly notify" means by the end of the workday during which the incident occurred when reasonably possible, but in no event later than the end of following workday.

(4) The parent or guardian of the student shall be provided with a written incident report for any incident reported under this section within a reasonable period of time, but in no event later than 30 days after the incident. The written incident report shall include:

a. The date, time of day, location, duration, and description of the incident and interventions.

b. The events or events that led up to the incident.

c. The nature and extent of any injury to the student.

d. The name of a school employee the parent or guardian can contact regarding the incident.

(5) No local board of education or employee of a local board of education shall discharge, threaten, or otherwise retaliate against another employee of the board regarding that employee's compensation, terms, conditions, location, or privileges of employment because the employee makes a report alleging a prohibited use of physical restraint, mechanical restraint, aversive procedure, or seclusion, unless the employee knew or should have known that the report was false.

(k) Nothing in this section shall be construed to create a private cause of action against any local board of education, its agents or employees, or any institutions of teacher education or their agents or employees or to create a criminal offense.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Alternative placements
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-12. Powers and duties of the Board generally.

The general supervision and administration of the free public school system shall be vested in the State Board of Education. The State Board of Education shall establish policy for the system of free public schools, subject to laws enacted by the General Assembly. The powers and duties of the State Board of Education are defined as follows:

(24) Duty to Develop Standards for Alternative Learning Programs, Provide Technical Assistance on Implementation of Programs, and Evaluate Programs. The State Board of Education shall adopt standards for assigning students to alternative learning programs. These standards shall include (i) a description of the programs and services that are recommended to be provided in alternative learning programs and (ii) a process for ensuring that an assignment is appropriate for the student and that the student's parents are involved in the decision. The State Board also shall adopt policies that define what constitutes an alternative school and an alternative learning program.

The State Board of Education shall also adopt standards to require that local school administrative units shall use (i) the teachers allocated for students assigned to alternative learning programs pursuant to the regular teacher allotment and (ii) the teachers allocated for students assigned to alternative learning programs only to serve the needs of these students.

The State Board of Education shall provide technical support to local school administrative units to assist them in developing and implementing plans and proposals for alternative learning programs.

The State Board shall evaluate the effectiveness of alternative learning programs and, in its discretion, of any other programs funded from the Alternative Schools/At-Risk Student allotment. Local school administrative units shall report to the State Board of Education on how funds in the Alternative Schools/At-Risk Student allotment are spent and shall otherwise cooperate with the State Board of Education in evaluating the alternative learning programs. As part of its evaluation of the effectiveness of these programs, the State Board shall, through the application of the accountability system developed under G.S. 115C-83.15 and G.S. 115C-105.35, measure the educational performance and growth of students placed in alternative schools and alternative programs. If appropriate, the Board may modify this system to adapt to the specific characteristics of these schools. Also as part of its evaluation, the State Board shall evaluate its standards adopted under this subdivision and make any necessary changes to those standards based on strategies that have been proven successful in improving student achievement and shall report to the Joint Legislative Education Oversight Committee by April 15, 2006 to determine if any changes are necessary to improve the implementation of successful alternative learning programs and alternative schools.

(44) Duty to Ensure Educational Services in Private Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities (PRTFs). The Board, in collaboration with the Department of Health and Human Services, shall ensure that educational services are provided to all students in PRTFs as required under Part 4 of Article 6 of Chapter 122C of the General Statutes. The Board shall ensure that a child with a disability as defined under G.S. 115C-106.3(1) in a PRTF receives educational services and procedural safeguards as provided in Article 9 of this Chapter.

§ 115C_105.47A. Proposals to establish alternative learning programs or alternative schools.

(a) Before establishing any alternative learning program or alternative school, the local board of education shall develop a proposal to implement the program or school that includes all of the following:

(1) The educational and behavioral goals for students assigned to the program or school.

(2) The policies and procedures for the operation of the program or school based on the State Board's standards adopted under G.S. 115C_12(24). The policies and procedures shall address the assignment of students to the program or school.

(3) Identified strategies that will be used to improve student achievement and behavior.

(4) Documentation that similar programs and schools in or out of the State, or both, have demonstrated success in improving the academic achievement and behavior of students assigned to them.

(5) The estimated actual cost of operating the program or school. To the extent practicable, this shall include the cost of:

a. Staffing the program or school with teachers who have at least four years' teaching experience and who have received an overall rating of at least above standard on a formal evaluation and are certified in the areas and grade levels being taught;

b. Providing optimum learning environments, resources and materials, and high quality, ongoing professional development that will ensure students who are placed in the program or school are provided enhanced educational opportunities in order to achieve their full potential;

c. Providing support personnel, including school counselors, psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, social workers, nurses, and other professionals to help students and their families work out complex issues and problems;

d. Maintaining safe and orderly learning environments; and

e. Providing transitional supports for students exiting the program or school and reentering the referring school.

(6) Documented support of school personnel and the community for the implementation of the program or school.

(b) After the local board completes the proposal under subsection (a) of this section, the board shall submit the proposal to the State Board of Education for its review. The State Board shall review the proposal expeditiously and, if appropriate, may offer recommendations to modify the proposal. The local board shall consider any recommendations made by the State Board before implementing the alternative learning program or alternative school.

§ 115C-105.48. Placement of students in alternative schools/alternative learning programs.

(a) Prior to referring a student to an alternative school or an alternative learning program, the referring school shall:

(1) Document the procedures that were used to identify the student as being at risk of academic failure or as being disruptive or disorderly.

(2) Provide the reasons for referring the student to an alternative school or an alternative learning program.

(3) Provide to the alternative school or alternative learning program all relevant student records, including anecdotal information.

(b) When a student is placed in an alternative school or an alternative learning program, the appropriate staff of the alternative school or alternative learning program shall meet to review the records forwarded by the referring school and to determine what support services and intervention strategies are recommended for the student. The parents shall be encouraged to provide input regarding the students' needs.

§ 115C-390.1. State policy and definitions.

(a) In order to create and maintain a safe and orderly school environment conducive to learning, school officials and teachers need adequate tools to maintain good discipline in schools. However, the General Assembly also recognizes that removal of students from school, while sometimes necessary, can exacerbate behavioral problems, diminish academic achievement, and hasten school dropout. School discipline must balance these interests to provide a safe and productive learning environment, to continually teach students to respect themselves, others, and property, and to conduct themselves in a manner that fosters their own learning and the learning of those around them.

(b) The following definitions apply in this Article:

(1) Alternative education services. Part or full-time programs, wherever situated, providing direct or computer-based instruction that allow a student to progress in one or more core academic courses. Alternative education services include programs established by the local board of education in conformity with G.S. 115C-105.47A and local board of education policies.

(5) Expulsion. The indefinite exclusion of a student from school enrollment for disciplinary purposes.

(7) Long-term suspension. The exclusion for more than 10 school days of a student from school attendance for disciplinary purposes from the school to which the student was assigned at the time of the disciplinary action. If the offense leading to the long-term suspension occurs before the final quarter of the school year, the exclusion shall be no longer than the remainder of the school year in which the offense was committed. If the offense leading to the long-term suspension occurs during the final quarter of the school year, the exclusion may include a period up to the remainder of the school year in which the offense was committed and the first semester of the following school year.

(12) Short-term suspension. The exclusion of a student from school attendance for disciplinary purposes for up to 10 school days from the school to which the student was assigned at the time of the disciplinary action.

(13) Substantial evidence. Such relevant evidence as a reasonable person might accept as adequate to support a conclusion; it is more than a scintilla or permissible inference.

§ 115C-390.7. Long-term suspension.

(e) Disciplinary reassignment of a student to a full-time educational program that meets the academic requirements of the standard course of study established by the State Board of Education as provided in G.S. 115C-12 and provides the student with the opportunity to make timely progress towards graduation and grade promotion is not a long-term suspension requiring the due process procedures described in G.S. 115C-390.8.No relevant statutes found.

§ 115C-390.9. Alternative education services.

(a) Students who are long-term suspended shall be offered alternative education services unless the superintendent provides a significant or important reason for declining to offer such services. The following may be significant or important reasons, depending on the circumstances and the nature and setting of the alternative education services:

(1) The student exhibits violent behavior.

(2) The student poses a threat to staff or other students.

(3) The student substantially disrupts the learning process.

(4) The student otherwise engaged in serious misconduct that makes the provision of alternative educational services not feasible.

(5) Educationally appropriate alternative education services are not available in the local school administrative unit due to limited resources.

(6) The student failed to comply with reasonable conditions for admittance into an alternative education program.

(b) If the superintendent declines to provide alternative education services to the suspended student, the student may seek review of such decision by the local board of education as permitted by G.S. 115C-45(c)(2). If the student seeks such review, the superintendent shall provide to the student and the local board, in advance of the board's review, a written explanation for the denial of services together with any documents or other information supporting the decision.

§ 115C-390.10. 365-day suspension for gun possession.

(f) Students who are suspended for 365 days pursuant to this section shall be considered for alternative educational services consistent with the provisions of G.S. 115C-390.9.

§ 115C-390.11. Expulsion.

(2) A local board of education may expel any student subject to G.S. 14-208.18 in accordance with the procedures of this section. Prior to ordering the expulsion of a student, the local board of education shall consider whether there are alternative education services that may be offered to the student. As provided by G.S. 14-208.18(f), if the local board of education determines that the student shall be provided educational services on school property, the student shall be under the supervision of school personnel at all times.

§ 115C-397.1. Management and placement of disruptive students.

If, after a teacher has requested assistance from the principal two or more times due to a student's disruptive behavior, the teacher finds that the student's disruptive behavior continues to interfere with the academic achievement of that student or other students in the class, then the teacher may refer the matter to a school-based committee. The teacher may request that additional classroom teachers participate in the committee's proceedings. For the purposes of this section, the committee shall notify the student's parent, guardian, or legal custodian and shall encourage that person's participation in the proceedings of the committee concerning the student. Nothing in this section requires a student to be screened, evaluated, or identified as a child with a disability under Article 9 of this Chapter. The committee shall review the matter and shall take one or more of the following actions:

(i) advise the teacher on managing the student's behavior more effectively,

(ii) recommend to the principal the transfer of the student to another class within the school,

(iii) recommend to the principal a multidisciplinary evaluation of the student,

(iv) recommend to the principal that the student be assigned to an alternative learning program, or

(v) recommend to the principal that the student receive any additional services that the school or the school unit has the resources to provide for the student. If the principal does not follow the recommendation of the committee, the principal shall provide a written explanation to the committee, the teacher who referred the matter to the committee, and the superintendent, of any actions taken to resolve the matter and of the reason the principal did not follow the recommendation of the committee.

This section shall be in addition to the supplemental to disciplinary action taken in accordance with any other law. The recommendation of the committee is final and shall not be appealed under G.S. 115C-45(c). Nothing in this section shall authorize a student to refer a disciplinary matter to this committee or to have the matter of the student's behavior referred to this committee before any discipline is imposed on the student.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Major Category
Disciplinary Approaches Addressing Specific Infractions and Conditions
Sub Category
Firearms (as required by the Guns-Free Schools Act)
Statute

LAWS

§ 14-269.2. Weapons on campus or other educational property.

(a)The following definitions apply to this section:

(1) Educational property. Any school building or bus, school campus, grounds, recreational area, athletic field, or other property owned, used, or operated by any board of education or school board of trustees, or directors for the administration of any school.

(1a) Employee. A person employed by a local board of education or school whether the person is an adult or a minor.

(1b) School. A public or private school, community college, college, or university.

(2) Student. A person enrolled in a school or a person who has been suspended or expelled within the last five years from a school, whether the person is an adult or a minor.

(3) Switchblade knife. A knife containing a blade that opens automatically by the release of a spring or a similar contrivance.

(3a) Volunteer school safety resource officer. A person who volunteers as a school safety resource officer as provided by G.S. 162-26 or G.S. 160A-288.4.

(4) Weapon. Any device enumerated in subsection (b), (b1), or (d) of this section.

(b) It shall be a Class I felony for any person knowingly to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any gun, rifle, pistol, or other firearm of any kind on educational property or to a curricular or extracurricular activity sponsored by a school. Unless the conduct is covered under some other provision of law providing greater punishment, any person who willfully discharges a firearm of any kind on educational property is guilty of a Class F felony. However, this subsection does not apply to a BB gun, stun gun, air rifle, or air pistol.

(b1) It shall be a Class G felony for any person to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any dynamite cartridge, bomb, grenade, mine, or powerful explosive as defined in G.S. 14-284.1, on educational property or to a curricular or extracurricular activity sponsored by a school. This subsection shall not apply to fireworks.

(c) It shall be a Class I felony for any person to cause, encourage, or aid a minor who is less than 18 years old to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any gun, rifle, pistol, or other firearm of any kind on educational property. However, this subsection does not apply to a BB gun, stun gun, air rifle, or air pistol.

(c1) It shall be a Class G felony for any person to cause, encourage, or aid a minor who is less than 18 years old to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any dynamite cartridge, bomb, grenade, mine, or powerful explosive as defined in G.S. 14-284.1 on educational property. This subsection shall not apply to fireworks.

(d) It shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor for any person to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any BB gun, stun gun, air rifle, air pistol, bowie knife, dirk, dagger, slungshot, leaded cane, switchblade knife, blackjack, metallic knuckles, razors and razor blades (except solely for personal shaving), firework, or any sharp-pointed or edged instrument except instructional supplies, unaltered nail files and clips and tools used solely for preparation of food, instruction, and maintenance, on educational property.

(e) It shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor for any person to cause, encourage, or aid a minor who is less than 18 years old to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any BB gun, stun gun, air rifle, air pistol, bowie knife, dirk, dagger, slungshot, leaded cane, switchblade knife, blackjack, metallic knuckles, razors and razor blades (except solely for personal shaving), firework, or any sharp-pointed or edged instrument except instructional supplies, unaltered nail files and clips and tools used solely for preparation of food, instruction, and maintenance, on educational property.

(f) Notwithstanding subsection (b) of this section it shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor rather than a Class I felony for any person to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any gun, rifle, pistol, or other firearm of any kind, on educational property or to a curricular or extracurricular activity sponsored by a school if:

(1) The person is not a student attending school on the educational property or an employee employed by the school working on the educational property; and

(1a) The person is not a student attending a curricular or extracurricular activity sponsored by the school at which the student is enrolled or an employee attending a curricular or extracurricular activity sponsored by the school at which the employee is employed; and

(2) Repealed by Session Laws 1999-211, s. 1, effective December 1, 1999, and applicable to offenses committed on or after that date.

(3) The firearm is not loaded, is in a motor vehicle, and is in a locked container or a locked firearm rack.

(4) Repealed by Session Laws 1999-211, s. 1, effective December 1, 1999, and applicable to offenses committed on or after that date.

(g) This section shall not apply to any of the following:

(1) A weapon used solely for educational or school-sanctioned ceremonial purposes, or used in a school-approved program conducted under the supervision of an adult whose supervision has been approved by the school authority.

(1a) A person exempted by the provisions of G.S. 14-269(b).

(2) Firefighters, emergency service personnel, North Carolina Forest Service personnel, detention officers employed by and authorized by the sheriff to carry firearms, and any private police employed by a school, when acting in the discharge of their official duties.

(3) Home schools as defined in G.S. 115C-563(a).

(4) Weapons used for hunting purposes on the Howell Woods Nature Center property in Johnston County owned by Johnston Community College when used with the written permission of Johnston Community College or for hunting purposes on other educational property when used with the written permission of the governing body of the school that controls the educational property.

(5) A person registered under Chapter 74C of the General Statutes as an armed armored car service guard or an armed courier service guard when acting in the discharge of the guard's duties and with the permission of the college or university.

(6) A person registered under Chapter 74C of the General Statutes as an armed security guard while on the premises of a hospital or health care facility located on educational property when acting in the discharge of the guard's duties with the permission of the college or university.

(7) A volunteer school safety resource officer providing security at a school pursuant to an agreement as provided in G.S. 115C-47(61) and either G.S. 162-26 or G.S. 160A-288.4, provided that the volunteer school safety resource officer is acting in the discharge of the person's official duties and is on the educational property of the school that the officer was assigned to by the head of the appropriate local law enforcement agency.

(h) No person shall be guilty of a criminal violation of this section with regard to the possession or carrying of a weapon so long as both of the following apply:

(1) The person comes into possession of a weapon by taking or receiving the weapon from another person or by finding the weapon.

(2) The person delivers the weapon, directly or indirectly, as soon as practical to law enforcement authorities.

(i) The provisions of this section shall not apply to an employee of an institution of higher education as defined in G.S. 116-143.1 or a nonpublic post-secondary educational institution who resides on the campus of the institution at which the person is employed when all of the following criteria are met:

(1) The employee's residence is a detached, single-family dwelling in which only the employee and the employee's immediate family reside.

(2) The institution is either:

a. An institution of higher education as defined by G.S. 116-143.1.

b. A nonpublic post-secondary educational institution that has not specifically prohibited the possession of a handgun pursuant to this subsection.

(3) The weapon is a handgun.

(4) The handgun is possessed in one of the following manners as appropriate:

a. If the employee has a concealed handgun permit that is valid under Article 54B of this Chapter, or who is exempt from obtaining a permit pursuant to that Article, the handgun may be on the premises of the employee's residence or in a closed compartment or container within the employee's locked vehicle that is located in a parking area of the educational property of the institution at which the person is employed and resides. Except for direct transfer between the residence and the vehicle, the handgun must remain at all times either on the premises of the employee's residence or in the closed compartment of the employee's locked vehicle. The employee may unlock the vehicle to enter or exit, but must lock the vehicle immediately following the entrance or exit if the handgun is in the vehicle.

b. If the employee is not authorized to carry a concealed handgun pursuant to Article 54B of this Chapter, the handgun may be on the premises of the employee's residence, and may only be in the employee's vehicle when the vehicle is occupied by the employee and the employee is immediately leaving the campus or is driving directly to their residence from off campus. The employee may possess the handgun on the employee's person outside the premises of the employee's residence when making a direct transfer of the handgun from the residence to the employee's vehicle when the employee is immediately leaving the campus or from the employee's vehicle to the residence when the employee is arriving at the residence from off campus.

(j) The provisions of this section shall not apply to an employee of a public or nonpublic school who resides on the campus of the school at which the person is employed when all of the following criteria are met:

(1) The employee's residence is a detached, single-family dwelling in which only the employee and the employee's immediate family reside.

(2) The school is either:

a. A public school which provides residential housing for enrolled students.

b. A nonpublic school which provides residential housing for enrolled students and has not specifically prohibited the possession of a handgun pursuant to this subsection.

(3) The weapon is a handgun.

(4) The handgun is possessed in one of the following manners as appropriate:

a. If the employee has a concealed handgun permit that is valid under Article 54B of this Chapter, or who is exempt from obtaining a permit pursuant to that Article, the handgun may be on the premises of the employee's residence or in a closed compartment or container within the employee's locked vehicle that is located in a parking area of the educational property of the school at which the person is employed and resides. Except for direct transfer between the residence and the vehicle, the handgun must remain at all times either on the premises of the employee's residence or in the closed compartment of the employee's locked vehicle. The employee may unlock the vehicle to enter or exit, but must lock the vehicle immediately following the entrance or exit if the handgun is in the vehicle.

b. If the employee is not authorized to carry a concealed handgun pursuant to Article 54B of this Chapter, the handgun may be on the premises of the employee's residence, and may only be in the employee's vehicle when the vehicle is occupied by the employee and the employee is immediately leaving the campus or is driving directly to their residence from off campus. The employee may possess the handgun on the employee's person outside the premises of the employee's residence when making a direct transfer of the handgun from the residence to the employee's vehicle when the employee is immediately leaving the campus or from the employee's vehicle to the residence when the employee is arriving at the residence from off campus.

(k) The provisions of this section shall not apply to a person who has a concealed handgun permit that is valid under Article 54B of this Chapter, or who is exempt from obtaining a permit pursuant to that Article, if any of the following conditions are met:

(1) The person has a handgun in a closed compartment or container within the person's locked vehicle or in a locked container securely affixed to the person's vehicle and only unlocks the vehicle to enter or exit the vehicle while the firearm remains in the closed compartment at all times and immediately locks the vehicle following the entrance or exit.

(2) The person has a handgun concealed on the person and the person remains in the locked vehicle and only unlocks the vehicle to allow the entrance or exit of another person.

(3) The person is within a locked vehicle and removes the handgun from concealment only for the amount of time reasonably necessary to do either of the following:

a. Move the handgun from concealment on the person to a closed compartment or container within the vehicle.

b. Move the handgun from within a closed compartment or container within the vehicle to concealment on the person.

(l) It is an affirmative defense to a prosecution under subsection (b) or (f) of this section that the person was authorized to have a concealed handgun in a locked vehicle pursuant to subsection (k) of this section and removed the handgun from the vehicle only in response to a threatening situation in which deadly force was justified pursuant to G.S. 14-51.3.

§ 115C-390.10. 365-day suspension for gun possession.

(a) All local boards of education shall develop and implement written policies and procedures, as required by the federal Gun Free Schools Act, 20 U.SC. § 7151, requiring suspension for 365 calendar days of any student who is determined to have brought or been in possession of a firearm or destructive device on educational property, or to a school-sponsored event off of educational property. A principal shall recommend to the superintendent the 365-day suspension of any student believed to have violated board policies regarding weapons. The superintendent has the authority to suspend for 365 days a student who has been recommended for such suspension by the principal when such recommendation is consistent with board policies. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the superintendent may modify, in writing, the required 365-day suspension for an individual student on a case-by-case basis. The superintendent shall not impose a 365-day suspension if the superintendent determines that the student took or received the firearm or destructive device from another person at school or found the firearm or destructive device at school, provided that the student delivered or reported the firearm or destructive device as soon as practicable to a law enforcement officer or a school employee and had no intent to use such firearm or destructive device in a harmful or threatening way.

(b) The principal must report all incidents of firearms or destructive devices on educational property or at a school_sponsored event as required by G.S. 115C_288(g) and State Board of Education policy.

(c) Nothing in this provision shall apply to a firearm that was brought onto educational property for activities approved and authorized by the local board of education, provided that the local board of education has adopted appropriate safeguards to protect student safety.

(d) At the time the student and parent receive notice that the student is suspended for 365 days under this section, the superintendent shall provide notice to the student and the student's parent of the right to petition the local board of education for readmission pursuant to G.S. 115C_390.12.

(e) The procedures described in G.S. 115C_390.8 apply to students facing a 365_day suspension pursuant to this section.

(f) Students who are suspended for 365 days pursuant to this section shall be considered for alternative educational services consistent with the provisions of G.S. 115C_390.9.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Other weapons
Statute

No relevant laws or regulations found.

Sub Category
Students with chronic disciplinary issues
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-397.1. Management and placement of disruptive students.

If, after a teacher has requested assistance from the principal two or more times due to a student's disruptive behavior, the teacher finds that the student's disruptive behavior continues to interfere with the academic achievement of that student or other students in the class, then the teacher may refer the matter to a school-based committee. The teacher may request that additional classroom teachers participate in the committee's proceedings. For the purposes of this section, the committee shall notify the student's parent, guardian, or legal custodian and shall encourage that person's participation in the proceedings of the committee concerning the student. Nothing in this section requires a student to be screened, evaluated, or identified as a child with a disability under Article 9 of this Chapter. The committee shall review the matter and shall take one or more of the following actions: (i) advise the teacher on managing the student's behavior more effectively, (ii) recommend to the principal the transfer of the student to another class within the school, (iii) recommend to the principal a multidisciplinary evaluation of the student, (iv) recommend to the principal that the student be assigned to an alternative learning program, or (v) recommend to the principal that the student receive any additional services that the school or the school unit has the resources to provide for the student. If the principal does not follow the recommendation of the committee, the principal shall provide a written explanation to the committee, the teacher who referred the matter to the committee, and the superintendent, of any actions taken to resolve the matter and of the reason the principal did not follow the recommendation of the committee.

This section shall be in addition to the supplemental to disciplinary action taken in accordance with any other law. The recommendation of the committee is final and shall not be appealed under G.S. 115C-45(c). Nothing in this section shall authorize a student to refer a disciplinary matter to this committee or to have the matter of the student's behavior referred to this committee before any discipline is imposed on the student.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Attendance and truancy
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-238.66. Board of directors; powers and duties.

The board of directors shall have the following powers and duties:

(3) School attendance. Every parent, guardian, or other person in this State having charge or control of a child who is enrolled in the regional school and who is less than 16 years of age shall cause such child to attend school continuously for a period equal to the time that the regional school shall be in session. No person shall encourage, entice, or counsel any child to be unlawfully absent from the regional school. Any person who aids or abets a student's unlawful absence from the regional school shall, upon conviction, be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. The principal shall be responsible for implementing such additional policies concerning compulsory attendance as shall be adopted by the board of directors, including regulations concerning lawful and unlawful absences, permissible excuses for temporary absences, maintenance of attendance records, and attendance counseling.

§ 115C-390.2. Discipline policies.

(d) Board policies shall not allow students to be long-term suspended or expelled from school solely for truancy or tardiness offenses and shall not allow short-term suspension of more than two days for such offenses.

(l) (Applicable to children enrolling in the public schools for the first time beginning with the 2016-2017 school year) Board policies shall state that absences under G.S. 130A-440 shall not be suspensions. A student subject to an absence under G.S. 130A-440 shall be provided the following:

(1) The opportunity to take textbooks and school-furnished digital devices home for the duration of the absence.

(2) Upon request, the right to receive all missed assignments and, to the extent practicable, the materials distributed to students in connection with the assignment.

(3) The opportunity to take any quarterly, semester, or grading period examinations missed during the absence period.

REGULATIONS

16 N.C.A.C. 06E.0103. Enforcement.

Each LEA must enforce the state laws and regulations which relate to compulsory attendance. LEAs may adopt rules which allow teachers to consider a student's absences in the computation of the student's grades.

16 N.C.A.C. 6E.0104. (2013) Involuntary Suspensions.

The absence of a student which results from the suspension or expulsion of that student for misconduct pursuant to the provisions of G.S. 115C-391 shall not be used for a compulsory attendance violation action.

Sub Category
Substance use
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-407. Policy prohibiting tobacco use in school buildings, grounds, and at school-sponsored events.

(a) Not later than August 1, 2008, local boards of education shall adopt, implement, and enforce a written policy prohibiting at all times the use of any tobacco product by any person in school buildings, in school facilities, on school campuses, and in or on any other school property owned or operated by the local school administrative unit. The policy shall further prohibit the use of all tobacco products by persons attending a school-sponsored event at a location not listed in this subsection when in the presence of students or school personnel or in an area where smoking is otherwise prohibited by law.

(b) The policy shall include at least all of the following elements:

(1) Adequate notice to students, parents, the public, and school personnel of the policy.

(2) Posting of signs prohibiting at all times the use of tobacco products by any person in and on school property.

(3) Requirements that school personnel enforce the policy.

(c) The policy may permit tobacco products to be included in instructional or research activities in public school buildings if the activity is conducted or supervised by the faculty member overseeing the instruction or research and the activity does not include smoking, chewing, or otherwise ingesting the tobacco product.

(d) The North Carolina Health and Wellness Trust Fund Commission shall work with local boards of education to provide assistance with the implementation of this policy including providing information regarding smoking cessation and prevention resources. Nothing in this section, G.S. 143_595 through G.S. 143_601, or any other section prohibits a local board of education from adopting and enforcing a more restrictive policy on the use of tobacco in school buildings, in school facilities, on school campuses, or at school_related or school_sponsored events, and in or on other school property.

§ 115C-149. Policy. Chemically dependent children excluded from provisions of Article 9.

The General Assembly of North Carolina hereby declares that the policy of the State is to ensure that an appropriate education is provided for drug and alcohol addicted children; however, drug and alcohol addicted children are not "children with disabilities" within the meaning of G.S. 115C_106.3(1) unless because of some other condition they meet that definition.

§ 115C-150. State Board to adopt rules.

The State Board of Education shall adopt rules to ensure that local school administrative units provide an appropriate education for drug and alcohol addicted children.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Bullying, harassment, or hazing
Statute

LAWS

§ 14-35. Hazing; definition and punishment.

It is unlawful for any student in attendance at any university, college, or school in this State to engage in hazing, or to aid or abet any other student in the commission of this offense. For the purposes of this section hazing is defined as follows: "to subject another student to physical injury as part of an initiation, or as a prerequisite to membership, into any organized school group, including any society, athletic team, fraternity or sorority, or other similar group." Any violation of this section shall constitute a Class 2 misdemeanor.

§ 14-458.1. Cyber-bullying; penalty.

(a) Except as otherwise made unlawful by this Article, it shall be unlawful for any person to use a computer or computer network to do any of the following:

(1) With the intent to intimidate or torment a minor:

a. Build a fake profile or Web site;

b. Pose as a minor in:

1. An Internet chat room;

2. An electronic mail message; or

3. An instant message;

c. Follow a minor online or into an Internet chat room; or

d. Post or encourage others to post on the Internet private, personal, or sexual information pertaining to a minor.

(2) With the intent to intimidate or torment a minor or the minor's parent or guardian:

a. Post a real or doctored image of a minor on the Internet;

b. Access, alter, or erase any computer network, computer data, computer program, or computer software, including breaking into a password protected account or stealing or otherwise accessing passwords; or

c. Use a computer system for repeated, continuing, or sustained electronic communications, including electronic mail or other transmissions, to a minor.

(3) Make any statement, whether true or false, intending to immediately provoke, and that is likely to provoke, any third party to stalk or harass a minor.

(4) Copy and disseminate, or cause to be made, an unauthorized copy of any data pertaining to a minor for the purpose of intimidating or tormenting that minor (in any form, including, but not limited to, any printed or electronic form of computer data, computer programs, or computer software residing in, communicated by, or produced by a computer or computer network).

(5) Sign up a minor for a pornographic Internet site with the intent to intimidate or torment the minor.

(6) Without authorization of the minor or the minor's parent or guardian, sign up a minor for electronic mailing lists or to receive junk electronic messages and instant messages, with the intent to intimidate or torment the minor.

(b) Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of cyber-bullying, which offense shall be punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor if the defendant is 18 years of age or older at the time the offense is committed. If the defendant is under the age of 18 at the time the offense is committed, the offense shall be punishable as a Class 2 misdemeanor.

(c) Whenever any person pleads guilty to or is guilty of an offense under this section, and the offense was committed before the person attained the age of 18 years, the court may, without entering a judgment of guilt and with the consent of the defendant, defer further proceedings and place the defendant on probation upon such reasonable terms and conditions as the court may require. Upon fulfillment of the terms and conditions of the probation provided for in this subsection, the court shall discharge the defendant and dismiss the proceedings against the defendant. Discharge and dismissal under this subsection shall be without court adjudication of guilt and shall not be deemed a conviction for purposes of this section or for purposes of disqualifications or disabilities imposed by law upon conviction of a crime. Upon discharge and dismissal pursuant to this subsection, the person may apply for an order to expunge the complete record of the proceedings resulting in the dismissal and discharge, pursuant to the procedures and requirements set forth in G.S. 15A-146.

§ 14-458.2. Cyber-bullying of school employee by student; penalty.

(a) The following definitions apply in this section:

(1) School employee. The term means any of the following:

a. An employee of a local board of education, a charter school authorized under G.S. 115C-218.5, a regional school created under G.S. 115C-238.62, a lab school created under G.S. 116-239.7, or a nonpublic school which has filed intent to operate under Part 1 or Part 2 of Article 39 of Chapter 115C of the General Statutes.

b. An independent contractor or an employee of an independent contractor of a local board of education, a charter school authorized under G.S. 115C-218.5, a regional school created under G.S. 115C-238.62, a lab school created under G.S. 116-239.7, or a nonpublic school which has filed intent to operate under Part 1 or Part 2 of Article 39 of Chapter 115C of the General Statutes, if the independent contractor carries out duties customarily performed by employees of the school.

(2) Student. A person who has been assigned to a school by a local board of education as provided in G.S. 115C-366 or has enrolled in a charter school authorized under G.S. 115C-218.5, a regional school created under G.S. 115C-238.62, a lab school created under G.S. 116-239.7, or a nonpublic school which has filed intent to operate under Part 1 or Part 2 of Article 39 of Chapter 115C of the General Statutes, or a person who has been suspended or expelled from any of those schools within the last year.

(b) Except as otherwise made unlawful by this Article, it shall be unlawful for any student to use a computer or computer network to do any of the following:

(1) With the intent to intimidate or torment a school employee, do any of the following:

a. Build a fake profile or Web site.

b. Post or encourage others to post on the Internet private, personal, or sexual information pertaining to a school employee.

c. Post a real or doctored image of the school employee on the Internet.

d. Access, alter, or erase any computer network, computer data, computer program, or computer software, including breaking into a password-protected account or stealing or otherwise accessing passwords.

e. Use a computer system for repeated, continuing, or sustained electronic communications, including electronic mail or other transmissions, to a school employee.

(2) Make any statement, whether true or false, intending to immediately provoke, and that is likely to provoke, any third party to stalk or harass a school employee.

(3) Copy and disseminate, or cause to be made, an unauthorized copy of any data pertaining to a school employee for the purpose of intimidating or tormenting that school employee (in any form, including, but not limited to, any printed or electronic form of computer data, computer programs, or computer software residing in, communicated by, or produced by a computer or computer network).

(4) Sign up a school employee for a pornographic Internet site with the intent to intimidate or torment the employee.

(5) Without authorization of the school employee, sign up a school employee for electronic mailing lists or to receive junk electronic messages and instant messages, with the intent to intimidate or torment the school employee.

(c) Any student who violates this section is guilty of cyber-bullying a school employee, which offense is punishable as a Class 2 misdemeanor.

(d)Whenever any student pleads guilty to or is guilty of an offense under this section, the court may, without entering a judgment of guilt and with the consent of the student, defer further proceedings and place the student on probation upon such reasonable terms and conditions as the court may require. Upon fulfillment of the terms and conditions of the probation provided for in this subsection, the court shall discharge the student and dismiss the proceedings against the student. Discharge and dismissal under this subsection shall be without court adjudication of guilt and shall not be deemed a conviction for purposes of this section or for purposes of disqualifications or disabilities imposed by law upon conviction of a crime. Upon discharge and dismissal pursuant to this subsection, the student may apply for an order to expunge the complete record of the proceedings resulting in the dismissal and discharge, pursuant to the procedures and requirements set forth in G.S. 15A-146.

(e) Whenever a complaint is received pursuant to Article 17 of Chapter 7B of the General Statutes based upon a student's violation of this section, the juvenile may, upon a finding of legal sufficiency pursuant to G.S. 7B-1706, enter into a diversion contract pursuant to G.S. 7B-1706.

§ 115C-238.66. Board of directors; powers and duties.

The board of directors shall have the following powers and duties:

(12) Policy against bullying. A regional school is encouraged to adopt a policy against bullying or harassing behavior, including cyber-bullying, that is consistent with the provisions of Article 29C of this Chapter. If a regional school adopts a policy to prohibit bullying and harassing behavior, the regional school shall, at the beginning of each school year, provide the policy to staff, students, and parents as defined in G.S. 115C-390.1(b)(8).

§ 115C-366.4. Assignment of students convicted of cyber-bullying.

A student who is convicted under G.S. 14-458.2 of cyber-bullying a school employee shall be transferred to another school within the local school administrative unit. If there is no other appropriate school within the local school administrative unit, the student shall be transferred to a different class or assigned to a teacher who was not involved as a victim of the cyber-bullying. Notwithstanding the provisions in this section, the superintendent may modify, in writing, the required transfer of an individual student on a case-by-case basis.

§ 115C-407.15. Bullying and harassing behavior.

(a) As used in this Article, "bullying or harassing behavior" is any pattern of gestures or written, electronic, or verbal communications, or any physical act or any threatening communication, that takes place on school property, at any school_sponsored function, or on a school bus, and that:

(1) Places a student or school employee in actual and reasonable fear of harm to his or her person or damage to his or her property; or

(2) Creates or is certain to create a hostile environment by substantially interfering with or impairing a student's educational performance, opportunities, or benefits. For purposes of this section, "hostile environment" means that the victim subjectively views the conduct as bullying or harassing behavior and the conduct is objectively severe or pervasive enough that a reasonable person would agree that it is bullying or harassing behavior.

Bullying or harassing behavior includes, but is not limited to, acts reasonably perceived as being motivated by any actual or perceived differentiating characteristic, such as race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, gender, socioeconomic status, academic status, gender identity, physical appearance, sexual orientation, or mental, physical, developmental, or sensory disability, or by association with a person who has or is perceived to have one or more of these characteristics.

(b) No student or school employee shall be subjected to bullying or harassing behavior by school employees or students.

(c) No person shall engage in any act of reprisal or retaliation against a victim, witness, or a person with reliable information about an act of bullying or harassing behavior.

(d) A school employee who has witnessed or has reliable information that a student or school employee has been subject to any act of bullying or harassing behavior shall report the incident to the appropriate school official.

(e) A student or volunteer who has witnessed or has reliable information that a student or school employee has been subject to any act of bullying or harassing behavior should report the incident to the appropriate school official.

§ 115C-407.16. Policy against bullying or harassing behavior.

(a) Before December 31, 2009, each local school administrative unit shall adopt a policy prohibiting bullying or harassing behavior.

(b) The policy shall contain, at a minimum, the following components:

(1) A statement prohibiting bullying or harassing behavior.

(2) A definition of bullying or harassing behavior no less inclusive than that set forth in this Article.

(3) A description of the type of behavior expected for each student and school employee.

(4) Consequences and appropriate remedial action for a person who commits an act of bullying or harassment.

(5) A procedure for reporting an act of bullying or harassment, including a provision that permits a person to report such an act anonymously. This shall not be construed to permit formal disciplinary action solely on the basis of an anonymous report.

(6) A procedure for prompt investigation of reports of serious violations and complaints of any act of bullying or harassment, identifying either the principal or the principal's designee as the person responsible for the investigation.

(7) A statement that prohibits reprisal or retaliation against any person who reports an act of bullying or harassment, and the consequence and appropriate remedial action for a person who engages in reprisal or retaliation.

(8) A statement of how the policy is to be disseminated and publicized, including notice that the policy applies to participation in school-sponsored functions.

(c) Nothing in this Article shall prohibit a local school administrative unit from adopting a policy that includes components beyond the minimum components provided in this section or that is more inclusive than the requirements of this Article.

(d) At the beginning of each school year, the principal shall provide the local school administrative unit's policy prohibiting bullying and harassing behavior, including cyber-bullying, to staff, students, and parents as defined in G.S. 115C-390.1(b)(8). Notice of the local policy shall appear in any school unit publication that sets forth the comprehensive rules, procedures, and standards of conduct for schools within the school unit and in any student and school employee handbook.

(e) Information regarding the local policy against bullying or harassing behavior shall be incorporated into a school's employee training program.

(f) To the extent funds are appropriated for these purposes, a local school administrative unit shall, by March 1, 2010, provide training on the local policy to school employees and volunteers who have significant contact with students.

§ 115C-407.17. Prevention of school violence.

Schools shall develop and implement methods and strategies for promoting school environments that are free of bullying or harassing behavior.

§ 115C-407.18. Construction of this Article.

(a) This Article shall not be construed to permit school officials to punish student expression or speech based on an undifferentiated fear or apprehension of disturbance or out of a desire to avoid the discomfort and unpleasantness that always accompany an unpopular viewpoint.

(b) This Article shall not be interpreted to prevent a victim of bullying or harassing behavior from seeking redress under any other available law, either civil or criminal.

(c) Nothing in this Article shall be construed to require an exhaustion of the administrative complaint process before civil or criminal law remedies may be pursued regarding bullying or harassing behavior.

(d) The provisions of this Article are severable, and if any provision of this Article is held invalid by a court of competent jurisdiction, the invalidity shall not affect other provisions of this Article which can be given effect without the invalid provision.

(e) The provisions of this Article shall be liberally construed to give effect to its purposes.

(f) Nothing in this act shall be construed to create any classification, protected class, suspect category, or preference beyond those existing in present statute or case law.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Other special infractions or conditions
Statute

No relevant laws or regulations found.

Major Category
Prevention and Behavioral Interventions (Non-Punitive)
Sub Category
Prevention
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-81.60. Character education.

(a) Each local board of education shall develop and implement character education instruction with input from the local community. The instruction shall be incorporated into the standard curriculum and should address the following traits:

(1) Courage. Having the determination to do the right thing even when others don't and the strength to follow your conscience rather than the crowd; and attempting difficult things that are worthwhile.

(2) Good judgment. Choosing worthy goals and setting proper priorities; thinking through the consequences of your actions; and basing decisions on practical wisdom and good sense.

(3) Integrity. Having the inner strength to be truthful, trustworthy, and honest in all things; acting justly and honorably.

(4) Kindness. Being considerate, courteous, helpful, and understanding of others; showing care, compassion, friendship, and generosity; and treating others as you would like to be treated.

(5) Perseverance. Being persistent in the pursuit of worthy objectives in spite of difficulty, opposition, or discouragement; and exhibiting patience and having the fortitude to try again when confronted with delays, mistakes, or failures.

(6) Respect. Showing high regard for authority, for other people, for self, for property, and for country; and understanding that all people have value as human beings.

(7) Responsibility. Being dependable in carrying out obligations and duties; showing reliability and consistency in words and conduct; being accountable for your own actions; and being committed to active involvement in your community.

(8) Self-discipline. Demonstrating hard work and commitment to purpose; regulating yourself for improvement and restraining from inappropriate behaviors; being in proper control of your words, actions, impulses, and desires; choosing abstinence from premarital sex, drugs, alcohol, and other harmful substances and behaviors; and doing your best in all situations.

(b) In addition to the instruction under subsection (a) of this section, local boards of education are encouraged to include instruction on the following responsibilities:

(1) Respect for school personnel. In the school environment, respect includes holding teachers, school administrators, and all school personnel in high esteem and demonstrating in words and deeds that all school personnel deserve to be treated with courtesy and proper deference.

(2) Responsibility for school safety. Helping to create a harmonious school atmosphere that is free from threats, weapons, and violent or disruptive behavior; cultivating an orderly learning environment in which students and school personnel feel safe and secure; and encouraging the resolution of conflicts and disagreements through peaceful means, including peer mediation. Instruction in this responsibility should include a consistent and age-appropriate antiviolence message and a conflict resolution component for students in kindergarten through grade 12. These messages should include media-awareness education to help children recognize stereotypes and messages portraying violence.

(3) Service to others. Engaging in meaningful service to their schools and their communities. Schools may teach service-learning by (i) incorporating it into their standard curriculum or (ii) involving a classroom of students or some other group of students in one or more hands-on community service projects. All schools are encouraged to provide opportunities for student involvement in community service or service-learning projects.

(4) Good citizenship. Obeying the laws of the nation and this State; abiding by school rules; and understanding the rights and responsibilities of a member of a republic.

§ 115C-407.17. Prevention of school violence.

Schools shall develop and implement methods and strategies for promoting school environments that are free of bullying or harassing behavior.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Behavioral interventions and student support services
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-390.2. Discipline policies.

(j) Local boards of education are encouraged to include in their safe schools plans, adopted pursuant to G.S. 115C-105.47, research-based behavior management programs that take positive approaches to improving student behaviors.

§ 115C-391.1. Permissible use of seclusion and restraint.

(a) It is the policy of the State of North Carolina to:

(4) Improve student achievement, attendance, promotion, and graduation rates by employing positive behavioral interventions to address student behavior in a positive and safe manner.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Professional development
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-391.1. Permissible use of seclusion and restraint.

(a) It is the policy of the State of North Carolina to:

(5) Promote retention of valuable teachers and other school personnel by providing appropriate training in prescribed procedures, which address student behavior in a positive and safe manner.

§ 115C-407.16. Policy against bullying or harassing behavior.

(e) Information regarding the local policy against bullying or harassing behavior shall be incorporated into a school's employee training program.

(f) To the extent funds are appropriated for these purposes, a local school administrative unit shall, by March 1, 2010, provide training on the local policy to school employees and volunteers who have significant contact with students.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Major Category
Monitoring and Accountability
Sub Category
Formal incident reporting of conduct violations
Statute

No relevant laws or regulations found.

Sub Category
Parental notification
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-390.6. Short-term suspension procedures.

(c) The principal shall provide notice to the student's parent of any short-term suspension, including the reason for the suspension and a description of the alleged student conduct upon which the suspension is based. The notice shall be given by the end of the workday during which the suspension is imposed when reasonably possible, but in no event more than two days after the suspension is imposed. The notice shall be given by certified mail, telephone, facsimile, e-mail, or any other method reasonably designed to achieve actual notice.

(d) If English is the second language of the parent, the notice shall be provided in the parent's primary language, when the appropriate foreign language resources are readily available, and in English, and both versions shall be in plain language and shall be easily understandable.

§ 115C-390.8. Long-term suspension procedures.

(a) When a student is recommended by the principal for long-term suspension, the principal shall give written notice to the student's parent. The notice shall be provided to the student's parent by the end of the workday during which the suspension was recommended when reasonably possible or as soon thereafter as practicable. The written notice shall provide at least the following information:

(1) A description of the incident and the student's conduct that led to the long-term suspension recommendation.

(2) A reference to the provisions of the Code of Student Conduct that the student is alleged to have violated.

(3) The specific process by which the parent may request a hearing to contest the decision, including the number of days within which the hearing must be requested.

(4) The process by which a hearing will be held, including, at a minimum, the procedures described in subsection (e) of this section.

(5) Notice that the parent is permitted to retain an attorney to represent the student in the hearing process.

(6) The extent to which the local board policy permits the parent to have an advocate, instead of an attorney, accompany the student to assist in the presentation of his or her appeal.

(7) Notice that the parent has the right to review and obtain copies of the student's educational records before the hearing.

(8) A reference to the local board policy on the expungement of discipline records as required by G.S. 115C-402.

(b) Written notice may be provided by certified mail, fax, e-mail, or any other written method reasonably designed to achieve actual notice of the recommendation for long-term suspension. When school personnel are aware that English is not the primary language of the parent or guardian, the notice shall be written in both English and in the primary language of the parent or guardian when the appropriate foreign language resources are readily available. All notices described in this section shall be written in plain English, and shall include the following information translated into the dominant non-English language used by residents within the local school administrative unit:

(1) The nature of the document, i.e., that it is a long-term suspension notice.

(2) The process by which the parent may request a hearing to contest the long-term suspension.

(3) The identity and phone number of a school employee that the parent may call to obtain assistance in understanding the English language information included in the document.

§ 115C-390.10. 365-day suspension for gun possession.

(d) At the time the student and parent receive notice that the student is suspended for 365 days under this section, the superintendent shall provide notice to the student and the student's parent of the right to petition the local board of education for readmission pursuant to G.S. 115C-390.12.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Reporting and referrals between schools and law enforcement
Statute

LAWS

§ 14-269.2. Weapons on campus or other educational property.

(a)The following definitions apply to this section:

(1) Educational property. Any school building or bus, school campus, grounds, recreational area, athletic field, or other property owned, used, or operated by any board of education or school board of trustees, or directors for the administration of any school.

(1a) Employee. A person employed by a local board of education or school whether the person is an adult or a minor.

(1b) School. A public or private school, community college, college, or university.

(2) Student. A person enrolled in a school or a person who has been suspended or expelled within the last five years from a school, whether the person is an adult or a minor.

(3) Switchblade knife. A knife containing a blade that opens automatically by the release of a spring or a similar contrivance.

(3a) Volunteer school safety resource officer. A person who volunteers as a school safety resource officer as provided by G.S. 162-26 or G.S. 160A-288.4.

(4) Weapon. Any device enumerated in subsection (b), (b1), or (d) of this section.

(b) It shall be a Class I felony for any person knowingly to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any gun, rifle, pistol, or other firearm of any kind on educational property or to a curricular or extracurricular activity sponsored by a school. Unless the conduct is covered under some other provision of law providing greater punishment, any person who willfully discharges a firearm of any kind on educational property is guilty of a Class F felony. However, this subsection does not apply to a BB gun, stun gun, air rifle, or air pistol.

(b1) It shall be a Class G felony for any person to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any dynamite cartridge, bomb, grenade, mine, or powerful explosive as defined in G.S. 14-284.1, on educational property or to a curricular or extracurricular activity sponsored by a school. This subsection shall not apply to fireworks.

(c) It shall be a Class I felony for any person to cause, encourage, or aid a minor who is less than 18 years old to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any gun, rifle, pistol, or other firearm of any kind on educational property. However, this subsection does not apply to a BB gun, stun gun, air rifle, or air pistol.

(c1) It shall be a Class G felony for any person to cause, encourage, or aid a minor who is less than 18 years old to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any dynamite cartridge, bomb, grenade, mine, or powerful explosive as defined in G.S. 14-284.1 on educational property. This subsection shall not apply to fireworks.

(d) It shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor for any person to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any BB gun, stun gun, air rifle, air pistol, bowie knife, dirk, dagger, slungshot, leaded cane, switchblade knife, blackjack, metallic knuckles, razors and razor blades (except solely for personal shaving), firework, or any sharp-pointed or edged instrument except instructional supplies, unaltered nail files and clips and tools used solely for preparation of food, instruction, and maintenance, on educational property.

(e) It shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor for any person to cause, encourage, or aid a minor who is less than 18 years old to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any BB gun, stun gun, air rifle, air pistol, bowie knife, dirk, dagger, slungshot, leaded cane, switchblade knife, blackjack, metallic knuckles, razors and razor blades (except solely for personal shaving), firework, or any sharp-pointed or edged instrument except instructional supplies, unaltered nail files and clips and tools used solely for preparation of food, instruction, and maintenance, on educational property.

(f) Notwithstanding subsection (b) of this section it shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor rather than a Class I felony for any person to possess or carry, whether openly or concealed, any gun, rifle, pistol, or other firearm of any kind, on educational property or to a curricular or extracurricular activity sponsored by a school if:

(1) The person is not a student attending school on the educational property or an employee employed by the school working on the educational property; and

(1a) The person is not a student attending a curricular or extracurricular activity sponsored by the school at which the student is enrolled or an employee attending a curricular or extracurricular activity sponsored by the school at which the employee is employed; and

(2) Repealed by Session Laws 1999-211, s. 1, effective December 1, 1999, and applicable to offenses committed on or after that date.

(3) The firearm is not loaded, is in a motor vehicle, and is in a locked container or a locked firearm rack.

(4) Repealed by Session Laws 1999-211, s. 1, effective December 1, 1999, and applicable to offenses committed on or after that date.

(g) This section shall not apply to any of the following:

(1) A weapon used solely for educational or school-sanctioned ceremonial purposes, or used in a school-approved program conducted under the supervision of an adult whose supervision has been approved by the school authority.

(1a) A person exempted by the provisions of G.S. 14-269(b).

(2) Firefighters, emergency service personnel, North Carolina Forest Service personnel, detention officers employed by and authorized by the sheriff to carry firearms, and any private police employed by a school, when acting in the discharge of their official duties.

(3) Home schools as defined in G.S. 115C-563(a).

(4) Weapons used for hunting purposes on the Howell Woods Nature Center property in Johnston County owned by Johnston Community College when used with the written permission of Johnston Community College or for hunting purposes on other educational property when used with the written permission of the governing body of the school that controls the educational property.

(5) A person registered under Chapter 74C of the General Statutes as an armed armored car service guard or an armed courier service guard when acting in the discharge of the guard's duties and with the permission of the college or university.

(6) A person registered under Chapter 74C of the General Statutes as an armed security guard while on the premises of a hospital or health care facility located on educational property when acting in the discharge of the guard's duties with the permission of the college or university.

(7) A volunteer school safety resource officer providing security at a school pursuant to an agreement as provided in G.S. 115C-47(61) and either G.S. 162-26 or G.S. 160A-288.4, provided that the volunteer school safety resource officer is acting in the discharge of the person's official duties and is on the educational property of the school that the officer was assigned to by the head of the appropriate local law enforcement agency.

(h) No person shall be guilty of a criminal violation of this section with regard to the possession or carrying of a weapon so long as both of the following apply:

(1) The person comes into possession of a weapon by taking or receiving the weapon from another person or by finding the weapon.

(2) The person delivers the weapon, directly or indirectly, as soon as practical to law enforcement authorities.

(i) The provisions of this section shall not apply to an employee of an institution of higher education as defined in G.S. 116-143.1 or a nonpublic post-secondary educational institution who resides on the campus of the institution at which the person is employed when all of the following criteria are met:

(1) The employee's residence is a detached, single-family dwelling in which only the employee and the employee's immediate family reside.

(2) The institution is either:

a. An institution of higher education as defined by G.S. 116-143.1.

b. A nonpublic post-secondary educational institution that has not specifically prohibited the possession of a handgun pursuant to this subsection.

(3) The weapon is a handgun.

(4) The handgun is possessed in one of the following manners as appropriate:

a. If the employee has a concealed handgun permit that is valid under Article 54B of this Chapter, or who is exempt from obtaining a permit pursuant to that Article, the handgun may be on the premises of the employee's residence or in a closed compartment or container within the employee's locked vehicle that is located in a parking area of the educational property of the institution at which the person is employed and resides. Except for direct transfer between the residence and the vehicle, the handgun must remain at all times either on the premises of the employee's residence or in the closed compartment of the employee's locked vehicle. The employee may unlock the vehicle to enter or exit, but must lock the vehicle immediately following the entrance or exit if the handgun is in the vehicle.

b. If the employee is not authorized to carry a concealed handgun pursuant to Article 54B of this Chapter, the handgun may be on the premises of the employee's residence, and may only be in the employee's vehicle when the vehicle is occupied by the employee and the employee is immediately leaving the campus or is driving directly to their residence from off campus. The employee may possess the handgun on the employee's person outside the premises of the employee's residence when making a direct transfer of the handgun from the residence to the employee's vehicle when the employee is immediately leaving the campus or from the employee's vehicle to the residence when the employee is arriving at the residence from off campus.

(j) The provisions of this section shall not apply to an employee of a public or nonpublic school who resides on the campus of the school at which the person is employed when all of the following criteria are met:

(1) The employee's residence is a detached, single-family dwelling in which only the employee and the employee's immediate family reside.

(2) The school is either:

a. A public school which provides residential housing for enrolled students.

b. A nonpublic school which provides residential housing for enrolled students and has not specifically prohibited the possession of a handgun pursuant to this subsection.

(3) The weapon is a handgun.

(4) The handgun is possessed in one of the following manners as appropriate:

a. If the employee has a concealed handgun permit that is valid under Article 54B of this Chapter, or who is exempt from obtaining a permit pursuant to that Article, the handgun may be on the premises of the employee's residence or in a closed compartment or container within the employee's locked vehicle that is located in a parking area of the educational property of the school at which the person is employed and resides. Except for direct transfer between the residence and the vehicle, the handgun must remain at all times either on the premises of the employee's residence or in the closed compartment of the employee's locked vehicle. The employee may unlock the vehicle to enter or exit, but must lock the vehicle immediately following the entrance or exit if the handgun is in the vehicle.

b. If the employee is not authorized to carry a concealed handgun pursuant to Article 54B of this Chapter, the handgun may be on the premises of the employee's residence, and may only be in the employee's vehicle when the vehicle is occupied by the employee and the employee is immediately leaving the campus or is driving directly to their residence from off campus. The employee may possess the handgun on the employee's person outside the premises of the employee's residence when making a direct transfer of the handgun from the residence to the employee's vehicle when the employee is immediately leaving the campus or from the employee's vehicle to the residence when the employee is arriving at the residence from off campus.

(k) The provisions of this section shall not apply to a person who has a concealed handgun permit that is valid under Article 54B of this Chapter, or who is exempt from obtaining a permit pursuant to that Article, if any of the following conditions are met:

(1) The person has a handgun in a closed compartment or container within the person's locked vehicle or in a locked container securely affixed to the person's vehicle and only unlocks the vehicle to enter or exit the vehicle while the firearm remains in the closed compartment at all times and immediately locks the vehicle following the entrance or exit.

(2) The person has a handgun concealed on the person and the person remains in the locked vehicle and only unlocks the vehicle to allow the entrance or exit of another person.

(3) The person is within a locked vehicle and removes the handgun from concealment only for the amount of time reasonably necessary to do either of the following:

a. Move the handgun from concealment on the person to a closed compartment or container within the vehicle.

b. Move the handgun from within a closed compartment or container within the vehicle to concealment on the person.

(l) It is an affirmative defense to a prosecution under subsection (b) or (f) of this section that the person was authorized to have a concealed handgun in a locked vehicle pursuant to subsection (k) of this section and removed the handgun from the vehicle only in response to a threatening situation in which deadly force was justified pursuant to G.S. 14-51.3.

§ 115C-390.10. 365-day suspension for gun possession.

(b) The principal must report all incidents of firearms or destructive devices on educational property or at a school-sponsored event as required by G.S. 115C-288(g) and State Board of Education policy.

§ 115C-288. Powers and duties of principal.

(g) To Report Certain Acts to Law Enforcement and the Superintendent. When the principal has personal knowledge or actual notice from school personnel that an act has occurred on school property involving assault resulting in serious personal injury, sexual assault, sexual offense, rape, kidnapping, indecent liberties with a minor, assault involving the use of a weapon, possession of a firearm in violation of the law, possession of a weapon in violation of the law, or possession of a controlled substance in violation of the law, the principal shall immediately report the act to the appropriate local law enforcement agency.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the State Board of Education shall not require the principal to report to law enforcement acts in addition to those required to be reported by law.

For purposes of this subsection, "school property" shall include any public school building, bus, public school campus, grounds, recreational area, or athletic field, in the charge of the principal.

The principal or the principal's designee shall notify the superintendent or the superintendent's designee in writing or by electronic mail regarding any report made to law enforcement under this subsection. This notification shall occur by the end of the workday in which the incident occurred when reasonably possible but not later than the end of the following workday. The superintendent shall provide the information to the local board of education.

Nothing in this subsection shall be interpreted to interfere with the due process rights of school employees or the privacy rights of students.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Disclosure of school records
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-288. Powers and duties of principal.

(j) To Transfer Student Records. The principal shall not withhold the transfer of student records, except as is provided in G.S. 115C-403(b).

§ 115C-402. Student records; maintenance; contents; confidentiality.

(b) The official record shall contain, as a minimum, adequate identification data including date of birth, attendance data, grading and promotion data, and such other factual information as may be deemed appropriate by the local board of education having jurisdiction over the school wherein the record is maintained. Each student's official record also shall include notice of any long-term suspension or expulsion imposed pursuant to G.S. 115C-390.7 through G.S. 115C-390.11 and the conduct for which the student was suspended or expelled. The superintendent or the superintendent's designee shall expunge from the record the notice of suspension or expulsion if the following criteria are met:

(1) One of the following persons makes a request for expungement:

a. The student's parent, legal guardian, or custodian.

b. The student, if the student is at least 16 years old or is emancipated.

(2) The student either graduates from high school or is not expelled or suspended again during the two-year period commencing on the date of the student's return to school after the expulsion or suspension.

(3) The superintendent or the superintendent's designee determines that the maintenance of the record is no longer needed to maintain safe and orderly schools.

(4) The superintendent or the superintendent's designee determines that the maintenance of the record is no longer needed to adequately serve the child.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (b)(1) of this section, a superintendent or the superintendent's designee may expunge from a student's official record any notice of suspension or expulsion provided all other criteria under subsection (b) are met.

(d) Each local board's policy on student records shall include information on the procedure for expungement under subsection (b) of this section.

(e) The official record of each student is not a public record as the term "public record" is defined by G.S. 132-1. The official record shall not be subject to inspection and examination as authorized by G.S. 132-6.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Data collection, review, and reporting of disciplinary policies and actions
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-12. Powers and duties of the Board generally.

The general supervision and administration of the free public-school system shall be vested in the State Board of Education. The State Board of Education shall establish policy for the system of free public schools, subject to laws enacted by the General Assembly. The powers and duties of the State Board of Education are defined as follows:

(18) Duty to Develop and Implement a Uniform Education Reporting System, Which Shall Include Standards and Procedures for Collecting Fiscal and Personnel Information. -

c. The State Board of Education shall comply with the provisions of G.S. 116-11(10a) to plan and implement an exchange of information between the public schools and the institutions of higher education in the State. The State Board of Education shall require local boards of education to provide to the parents of children at a school all information except for confidential information received about that school from institutions of higher education pursuant to G.S. 116-11(10a) and to make that information available to the general public.

(21) Duty to Monitor Acts of School Violence. The State Board of Education shall monitor and compile an annual report on acts of violence in the public schools. The State Board shall adopt standard definitions for acts of school violence and shall require local boards of education to report them to the State Board in a standard format adopted by the State Board. The State Board shall submit its report on acts of violence in the public schools to the Joint Legislative Education Oversight Committee by March 15 of each year.

(27) Reporting Dropout Rates, Corporal Punishment, Suspensions, Expulsions, and Alternative Placements. The State Board shall report by March 15 of each year to the Joint Legislative Education Oversight Committee on the numbers of students who have dropped out of school, been subjected to corporal punishment, been suspended, been expelled, been reassigned for disciplinary purposes, or been provided alternative education services. The data shall be reported in a disaggregated manner, reflecting the local school administrative unit, race, gender, grade level, ethnicity, and disability status of each affected student. Such data shall be readily available to the public. The State Board shall not include students that have been expelled from school when calculating the dropout rate. The Board shall maintain a separate record of the number of students who are expelled from school and the reasons for the expulsion.

(27a) Reducing School Dropout Rates. The State Board of Education shall develop a statewide plan to improve the State's tracking of dropout data so that accurate and useful comparisons can be made over time. The plan shall include, at a minimum, how dropouts are counted and the methodology for calculating the dropout rate, the ability to track student's movements among schools and districts, and the ability to provide information on who drops out and why.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Major Category
School Resource and Safety Officers (SROs/SSOs) and Truant/Attendance Officers
Sub Category
Authority and power to implement school arrest
Statute

No relevant laws or regulations found.

Sub Category
Certification or training
Statute

No relevant laws or regulations found.

Sub Category
MOUs, authorization, and/or funding
Statute

No relevant laws or regulations found.

Major Category
State Education Agency Support
Sub Category
State model policies and implementation support
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-12. Powers and duties of the Board generally.

The general supervision and administration of the free public-school system shall be vested in the State Board of Education. The State Board of Education shall establish policy for the system of free public schools, subject to laws enacted by the General Assembly. The powers and duties of the State Board of Education are defined as follows:

(24) Duty to Develop Standards for Alternative Learning Programs, Provide Technical Assistance on Implementation of Programs, and Evaluate Programs. The State Board of Education shall adopt standards for assigning students to alternative learning programs. These standards shall include (i) a description of the programs and services that are recommended to be provided in alternative learning programs and (ii) a process for ensuring that an assignment is appropriate for the student and that the student's parents are involved in the decision. The State Board also shall adopt policies that define what constitutes an alternative school and an alternative learning program.

The State Board of Education shall also adopt standards to require that local school administrative units shall use (i) the teachers allocated for students assigned to alternative learning programs pursuant to the regular teacher allotment and (ii) the teachers allocated for students assigned to alternative learning programs only to serve the needs of these students.

The State Board of Education shall provide technical support to local school administrative units to assist them in developing and implementing plans and proposals for alternative learning programs.

The State Board shall evaluate the effectiveness of alternative learning programs and, in its discretion, of any other programs funded from the Alternative Schools/At-Risk Student allotment. Local school administrative units shall report to the State Board of Education on how funds in the Alternative Schools/At-Risk Student allotment are spent and shall otherwise cooperate with the State Board of Education in evaluating the alternative learning programs. As part of its evaluation of the effectiveness of these programs, the State Board shall, through the application of the accountability system developed under G.S. 115C-83.15 and G.S. 115C-105.35, measure the educational performance and growth of students placed in alternative schools and alternative programs. If appropriate, the Board may modify this system to adapt to the specific characteristics of these schools. Also as part of its evaluation, the State Board shall evaluate its standards adopted under this subdivision and make any necessary changes to those standards based on strategies that have been proven successful in improving student achievement and shall report to the Joint Legislative Education Oversight Committee by April 15, 2006 to determine if any changes are necessary to improve the implementation of successful alternative learning programs and alternative schools.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Funding appropriations
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-407. Policy prohibiting tobacco use in school buildings, grounds, and at school_sponsored events.

(d) The North Carolina Health and Wellness Trust Fund Commission shall work with local boards of education to provide assistance with the implementation of this policy including providing information regarding smoking cessation and prevention resources.[...]

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Major Category
Other/Uncategorized
Sub Category
Professional immunity or liability
Statute

LAWS

§ 115C-390.3. Reasonable force.

(c) Notwithstanding any other law, no officer or employee of the State Board of Education or of a local board of education shall be civilly liable for using reasonable force in conformity with State law, State or local rules, or State or local policies regarding the control, discipline, suspension, and expulsion of students. Furthermore, the burden of proof is on the claimant to show that the amount of force used was not reasonable.

(d) No school employee shall be reprimanded or dismissed for acting or failing to act to stop or intervene in an altercation between students if the employee's actions are consistent with local board policies. Local boards of education shall adopt policies, pursuant to their authority under G.S. 115C-47(18), which provide guidelines for an employee's response if the employee has personal knowledge or actual notice of an altercation between students.

REGULATIONS

No relevant regulations found.

Sub Category
Community input or involvement
Statute

No relevant laws or regulations found.

Sub Category
Other or Uncategorized
Statute

No relevant laws or regulations found.

Major Category
Sub Category
Statute
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