- Student-teacher relationships; Safety; School connectedness; Academic support; Order and discipline; Physical environment; Parent involvement; Trust
Selected publications include:
- Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2006). Academic optimism of schools: A force for student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 425-446.
- McGuigan, L. & Hoy, W. K. (2006). Principal leadership: Creating a culture of academic optimism to improve achievement for all students. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 5, 203-229.
- Smith, P. A. & Hoy, W. K. (2007). Academic optimism and student achievement in urban elementary schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 45, 556-568.