Communities That Care Youth Survey


Community risk factors (low neighborhood attachment, community disorganization, transitions and mobility, perceived availability of drugs, perceived availability of handguns, laws and norms favorable to drug use); Community protective factors (opportunities for prosocial involvement, rewards for prosocial involvement); Family risk factors (family history of antisocial behavior, poor family management, family conflict, parental attitudes favorable toward drug use, parental attitudes favorable toward antisocial behavior); Family protective factors (attachment, opportunities for prosocial involvement, rewards for prosocial involvement); School risk factors (academic failure, low commitment to school); School protective factors (opportunities for prosocial involvement, rewards for prosocial involvement); Peer-individual risk factors (rebelliousness, gang involvement, perceived risks of drug use, early initiation of drug use, early initiation of antisocial behavior, favorable attitudes toward drug use, favorable attitudes toward antisocial behavior, sensation seeking, rewards for antisocial involvement, friends’ use of drugs, interaction with antisocial peers, intentions to use); Peer-individual protective factors (interaction with prosocial peers, belief in moral order, prosocial involvement, rewards for prosocial involvement, social skills, religiosity); Outcome measures (depression, antisocial behavior, substance use)

Grade Level
  • Arthur, M. W. (2011) The Communities That Care Youth Survey: Additional information for checklist criteria. Unpublished memo.
  • Calkins, S. D. (2009). Psychobiological models of adolescent risk: Implications for prevention and intervention. Developmental Psychobiology, 213-215.
  • Community Youth Development Study. (2010). Communities That Care Youth Survey item construct dictionary.
  • Fagan, A. A., Horn, M. L. V., Hawkins, J. D., & Arthur, M. (2007). Using community and family risk and protective factors for community-based prevention planning. Journal of Community Psychology, 35(4), 535-555.
  • Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Arthur, M. W. (2002). Promoting science-based prevention in communities. Addictive Behaviors, 905, 1-26.
  • Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R. D., & Hill, K .G.  (1999). Preventing adolescent health risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 153(3), 226-234.
  • Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 64-105.
  • Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2011). Monitoring the future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2010. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.
  • Monahan, K., Egan, E. A., Horn, M. L. V., Arthur, M., & Hawkins, D. (2011). Community-level effects of individual and peer risk and protective factors on adolescent substance use. Journal of Community Psychology, 39(4), 478-498.
  • Schulenberg, J. E., & Maggs, J. L. (2008). Destiny matters: Distal developmental influences on adult alcohol use and abuse. Addiction, 103(Suppl. 1), 1-6.
  • Williams, J. H., Ayers, C. D., & Arthur, M. W. (1997). Risk and protective factors in the development of delinquency and conduct disorder. In M. W. Fraser (Ed.), Risk and resilience in childhood: An ecological perspective (pp. 140-170). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
Survey Instruments

The 2014 survey instrument is publicly available. Please contact the University of Washington Center for Communities That Care (206-685-7723 or for information about this survey. Survey instruments are available in English. 

Survey Level
Survey Data

This is one of the K-12 Surveys listed in the School Climate Survey Compendium.

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